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A range of neuropathological changes occur in the brains of individuals with adult Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), a recessive disorder of cholesterol trafficking that results in accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides in lysosomes, particularly in neurons. One of the most significant regions of grey matter loss occurs in the thalami, which abut the midline. What is not known is whether these are neurodevelopmental in origin well prior to symptomatic onset. We aimed to examine other markers of midline developmental anomalies in adults with NPC.
We examined the size of adhesio interthalamica (AI) and cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) (if present) in nine individuals diagnosed with NPC and nine healthy comparison subjects, matched for age and gender, using a 3T magnetic resonance volumetric sequence and measured the length of the AI and CSP in mm.
We found that 5/9 NPC patients and 0/9 controls had a missing AI. AI length was significantly shorter in the patient group. No subject in other group had a large CSP, and CSP length did not differ. Duration of illness showed a trend to a negative correlation with AI length in patients.
Our findings suggest that adult NPC patients show some markers of early neurodevelopmental disturbance, matching findings seen in psychotic disorders. The differences in AI, but not CSP, suggest neurodevelopmental change may occur early in gestation rather than post-partum. The relationship with duration of illness suggests that there may be atrophy over time in these structures, consistent with prior analyses of grey matter regions in NPC.
Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes.
The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner.
Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ.
Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters.
Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.
Patients with the deficit form of schizophrenia (D-SZ) are characterized by severe primary negative symptoms and differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects. No study has measured brain gyrification, which is a potential marker of neurodevelopment, in D-SZ and ND-SZ.
We obtained magnetic resonance scans from 135 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. The proxy scale for deficit syndrome (PDS) was used for the classification of D-SZ and ND-SZ. The local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was measured using FreeSurfer. Thirty-seven D-SZ and 36 ND-SZ patients were included in the LGI analyses. We compared LGI across the groups.
SZ patients exhibited hyper-gyral patterns in the bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, bilateral anterior cingulate gyri and right lateral parietal/occipital cortices as compared with HCs. Although patients with D-SZ or ND-SZ had higher LGI in similar regions compared with HC, the hyper-gyral patterns were broader in ND-SZ. ND-SZ patients exhibited a significantly higher LGI in the left inferior parietal lobule relative to D-SZ patients. Duration of illness inversely associated with LGI in broad regions only among ND-SZ patients.
The common hyper-gyral patterns among D-SZ and ND-SZ suggest that D-SZ and ND-SZ may share neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The different degrees of cortical gyrification seen in the left parietal regions, and the distinct correlation between illness chronicity and LGI observed in the prefrontal and insular cortices may be related to the differences in the clinical manifestations among D-SZ and ND-SZ.
Treatment-resistant depression is a challenging problem in the clinical setting. Tipepidine has been used as a non-narcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959.
We administered tipepidine to 11 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Tipepidine was given for 8 weeks as an augmentation.
Tipepidine significantly improved depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Add-on treatment with tipepidine significantly improved scores on the trail making test and Rey auditory verbal learning test. However, no changes were observed in blood concentrations of stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate) with tipepidine augmentation.
Tipepidine might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment-resistant depression.
Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been
consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their
occurrence remains unclear.
To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes
before the onset of psychosis.
We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the
superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's
gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97
antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom
31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.
Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal
gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any
prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between
those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.
Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior
temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to
medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition
We previously demonstrated that safflower seed extract (SSE) and its major antioxidant constituents, serotonin hydroxycinnamic acid amides, suppressed LDL oxidation in vitro, decreased plasma autoantibody titres to oxidized LDL and attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-deficient mice. In this report, we examined whether SSE, rich in serotonin derivatives, could affect markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and aortic stiffness in healthy human subjects. Twenty Japanese male volunteers were studied at baseline, after 2·1 g SSE supplementation daily (providing 290 mg serotonin derivatives/d) for 4 weeks, and after a 4-week washout period. Significant reductions in circulating oxidized LDL, autoantibody titres to malondialdehyde-modified LDL, the soluble form of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and urinary 8-isoprostane were observed after a 4-week intervention. Although there were no statistically significant differences in blood pressure or brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, baPWV was lower than baseline in eleven of twenty subjects and was accompanied by a reduction in blood pressure. Statistically significant negative correlations were observed between the extent of initial cardiovascular risk markers (autoantibody titres, 8-isoprostane, sVCAM-1 and baPWV) and the effect of intervention. This suggested that individuals with elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and/or arterial stiffness may receive more benefit from SSE supplementation.
We a pplied ellipsometric porosimetry and variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy to the pore characterization of spin-on-glass silicon-oxide-backboned porous thin films with different relative dielectric constants between 2.3 and 3.2. It was found that the relative dielectric constant decreases linearly with increasing open porosity deduced by ellipsometric porosimetry. Comparison of the open porosity with the average pore size deduced by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy suggested that mesopores less contribute to open porosity and are not so effective in decreasing film relative dielectric constant in comparison with micropores.
Deuterium dilution instead of hydrogen has been studied in microcrystalline silicon growth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with monosilane. It was found that the crystallinity for D2 dilution is significantly improved as compared to that for H2 dilution at the same growth rate. Optical emission spectroscopy measurement shows that the electron temperature of SiH4 + D2 plasma is lower than that of SiH4 + H2, indicating that the bombarding ion energy is reduced for D2 dilution. It was also found that the H-D exchange reaction on the surface has a certain threshold number of events and that microcrystalline formation occurs only above the threshold. The role of atomic hydrogen originating from a diluent in crystal formation is discussed.
The marine red alga known as Laurencia obtusa var.
snackeyi (Weber–van Bosse) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae,
Ceramiales) is characterized as
follows: (1) production of 4 periaxial cells from each axial cell;
(2) a few, percurrent, terete, thick main axes arising from a single discoid
holdfast without stolon-like branches; (3) alternate-spiral
branching; (4) presence of longitudinally oriented secondary pit-connections
between contiguous superficial cortical cells; (5) absence of a
palisade-like layer; (6) absence of projecting superficial cortical cells;
absence of lenticular thickenings in the walls of medullary cells;
(8) parallel arrangement of tetrasporangia; and (9) presence of one corps
cerise per superficial cortical cell and trichoblast cell.
It differs from L. obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux in the
absence of stolon-like branches
with secondary attachment discs and the presence of thicker axes. The
following binomial is proposed: Laurencia snackeyi (Weber–van
Bosse) Masuda, stat. nov. Halogenated secondary metabolites of this species
were investigated for samples from Vietnam and Malaysia.
The major metabolites of the Vietnamese sample are palisadin A and
aplysistatin, both sesquiterpenoids, whereas the Malaysian samples
contain these compounds along with another monocyclofarnesol-derived
sesquiterpenoid, 5-acetoxypalisadin B. L. snackeyi is also
characterized by this set of secondary metabolites.
The oxidation of ZrC single crystals having (100) faces was performed at a temperature of 600 °C at an oxygen pressure of 2.6 kPa. A polished cross section of oxide scale was observed by backscattered electron imaging (BEI) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The oxide scale was observed to consist of two subscales, zones 1 and 2; zone 1 is adjacent to the ZrC. The thickness of zone 1 was kept constant (about 2 μm), independent of oxidation time. The interfacial microstructure between ZrC and cubic ZrO2 (c-ZrO2) phase in zone 1 was observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, by using an extremely thin foil of an oxidized crystal. The c-ZrO2 crystallites of 2 to 10 nm in size showing the (111), (200), and (220) lattice fringes were aggregated and distributed in an area about 10 to 20 nm away from the interface, with an amorphous layer observed adjacent to the ZrC. Electron dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) indicated that carbon is concentrated at the interface; a decreasing oxygen concentration gradient in the oxide phase and away from the interface in the ZrC suggests the formation of oxygen-deficient ZrO2–x and oxycarbide on the respective sides of the interface. A black coating layer appeared, resulting from detachment or dissolution of zone 2, when a crystal oxidized for 1 h was treated in a HF solution. The layer was shown by the Raman spectrum to be amorphous carbon.
1. When a permutation group G on a set Ω is given, a transitive extension G of G is defined to be a transitive permutation group on the set Γ which is a union of Ω and a new point ∞ such that the stabilizer of ∞ in G1 is isomorphic to G as a permutation group on Ω. The purpose of this paper is to prove that many known simple groups which can be represented as doubly transitive groups admit no transitive extension. Precise statement is found in Theorem 2. For example, the simple groups discovered by Ree  do not admit transitive extensions. Theorem 2 includes also a recent result of D. R. Hughes  which states that the unitary group U3(q) q>2 does not admit a transitive extension. As an application we prove a recent theorem of H. Nagao , which generalizes a theorem of Wielandt on the non-existence of 8-transitive permutation groups not containing the alternating groups under Schreier’s conjecture.
In his address at the International Congress of Mathematicians at Amsterdam  Professor R. Brauer proposed a problem of characterizing various groups of even order by the properties of the involutions contained in these groups and he gave characterizations of the general projective linear groups of low dimensions along these lines. The detail of the one-dimensional case has been published in , but the two-dimensional case has not appeared yet in detail. His work was followed by Suzuki , Feit  and Walter . The present paper is a continuation of [73 and discusses a characterization of the two-dimensional projective unitary group over a finite field of characteristic 2. The precise conditions which characterize the group in question will be stated in the first section. The method employed here is similar to the one used in . An application of group characters provides a formula for the order. However a difficulty comes in when one attempts to identify the group. In order to overcome this difficulty we will use a method primarily designed to study a class of doubly transitive permutation groups (cf. ). We need also a group theoretical characterization of a class of doubly transitive groups called (ZT)-groups. This is a generalization of a result in , and may be of in dependent interest.
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