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Our limited knowledge of the climate prevailing over Europe during former glaciations is the main obstacle to reconstruct the past evolution of the ice coverage over the Alps by numerical modelling. To address this challenge, we perform a two-step modelling approach: First, a regional climate model is used to downscale the time slice simulations of a global earth system model in high resolution, leading to climate snapshots during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS4). Second, we combine these snapshots and a climate signal proxy to build a transient climate over the last glacial period and force the Parallel Ice Sheet Model to simulate the dynamical evolution of glaciers in the Alps. The results show that the extent of modelled glaciers during the LGM agrees with several independent key geological imprints, including moraine-based maximal reconstructed glacial extents, known ice transfluences and trajectories of erratic boulders of known origin and deposition. Our results highlight the benefit of multiphysical coupled climate and glacier transient modelling over simpler approaches to help reconstruct paleo glacier fluctuations in agreement with traces they have left on the landscape.
Introduction: We characterised tobacco use, cessation patterns, and patient satisfaction with a cessation support program at an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center following a mandatory tobacco assessment and automatic referral.
Methods: A 3-month follow-up survey (via web, paper, or telephone) was administered between March 2013 and November 2013 for all patients referred to and contacted by a cessation support service, and who consented to participation three months prior to administration. Patients were asked about their perceived importance and self-efficacy to quit smoking, quit attempts, and satisfaction with the cessation service.
Results: Fifty-two percent (257/499) of patients who participated in the cessation support service, and consented to be contacted again, completed a follow-up survey. Of those who participated, 9.7% were referred to the service as having recently quit tobacco (in the past 30 days) and 23.6% reported having quit at the time of first contact. At the 3-month follow-up, 48.1% reported being smoke-free for the previous seven days. When patients were asked about their experience with the cessation service, 86.4% reported being very or mostly satisfied with the service, and 64.3% reported that their experience with the service increased their satisfaction with the care received at the cancer centre.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that recently diagnosed cancer patients are aware that quitting tobacco is important, are making attempts to quit, and are amenable to an opt-out automatic referral cessation support service as part of their cancer care.
The use of generic sorption data in PA requires the transfer of the data to the PA-specific conditions. A site-specific Kd setting approach for PA calculations was tested, comparing two data transfer procedures. First transfer of sorption data can be done through semi-quantitative estimation procedures, by considering differences between experimental and PA geochemical conditions (sorption capacity, radionuclide speciation, competitive reactions, etc.). On the other hand, thermodynamic sorption models allow to estimate Kd variations directly, based on quasi-mechanistic understanding. The present paper focuses on illustrating example calculations regarding the derivation of Kd values, and their uncertainties, of Cs, Ni, Am and Th, for the mineralogical and geochemical conditions of the mudstone system at the Horonobe URL. Clay minerals (illite and smectite) were considered as sorption-relevant minerals in all cases. The Kd setting results were compared with Kd measured for Horonobe mudstone by batch experiments. The results indicate that Kd can be quantitatively evaluated from generic sorption data when adequate data and models are available. The careful evaluation and conjunctive use of calculated and measured Kd values can enhance the reliability of Kd setting and uncertainty assessments.
Cells initiate responses to the external environment and internal state through a complex network of signaling pathways composed of many multipurpose proteins. Errors within these signaling networks play a major role in disease progression, so determining signaling activity is crucial in understanding many diseases, including cancer. The changes in these pathways lead to multiple responses within cells, including induction of transcription, allowing the use of microarray data for interpretation of signaling activity. However, linking transcriptional changes to signaling pathways is complicated by the multipurpose nature of proteins, the overlap of signaling pathways, the presence of routine background transcription of housekeeping genes, and the lack of correlation between transcript and protein levels. In order to recover estimates of signaling from microarray data, several steps are required, including (1) modeling of signaling pathways and their links to transcription factors, (2) analysis of transcription factor and transcription complex binding sites in the genome, (3) use of Bayesian methods to extract overlapping transcriptional signatures, and (4) determination of the appropriate dimensionality for analysis. Here we present an approach using simplistic network models, existing databases of transcription factors, and Bayesian Decomposition to demonstrate the methodology.
Many methods have been developed to model biological processes and extract information from transcriptional data, and this review cannot fully cover all such methods. The goal will be instead to provide an overview of the key issues to resolve in estimating signaling changes when working with transcriptional data, as provided by GeneChips and microarrays.
Signaling Networks and Transcription
Signaling networks provide cells with the ability to initiate complex responses to the external environment and internal state.
The Karlsruhe Microwave Plasma Process (KMPP), a versatile gas-phase process is applied to produce SnO2 and core shell SnO2/SiO2 nanoparticles which are, respectively, deposited in-situ on preheated Si-Substrates. These substrates are already equipped with an electrode microarray. The proof of sensor concept shows, that mechanically stable, nanoscaled and nanogranular gas sensing layers can be produced.
In a first step synthesis and deposition parameters of SnO2 are elaborated, and gas-sensitivity tests are performed. Additionally, annealing experiments are done. The morphology and struc-ture of nanoparticles is characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM-methods. The layers are in-vestigated by SEM techniques and by XPS. The sensitivity of the nanogranular layer is deter-mined in comparison with a standard microarray equipped with sputtered layers. Particles crys-tallize in the tetragonal cassiterite structure. It is found that a precursor concentration of 3×10−6mol/l leads to particles with crystallite size in the region of 2nm, whereas a concentration of 5.5×10−4mol/l results in approximately 5nm particles. With the precursor concentration, columnar porous layers of 200nm thickness are obtained after a deposition time of 1min. This thickness is comparable to the one of sputtered layers. First sensor tests show 10 times higher sensitivity to isopropanol, compared to the standard array. The time of response is equivalent. The grain growth observed for bare and core/shell nanoparticles at 300°C is marginal.
The solubility of niobium was investigated for Ca and pH conditions relevant for cementequilibrated solutions. For the pH range considered (9.5-13.2), the dissolved Nb concentration decreases with increasing pH. Overall, experiments lead to Nb concentrations between 2·10-5 M and 2·10-9 M. For all pH values, the dissolved Nb concentration also decreases systematically with increasing Ca concentration. X-ray diffraction measurements of selected experiments confirmed the presence of a solid Ca-Nb-oxide phase, with CaNb4O11·8H2O (hochelagaite) being the most likely composition. On the basis of these findings an empirical regression model for the prediction of Nb solubility data as a function of pH and Ca concentration was derived. This empirical relation is consistent with the presence of a solubility limiting Ca-Nb solid phase and permits to predict aqueous Nb solubility values in cementitious environments over a relatively wide range of conditions. Predicted values are in good agreement with independent experimental results.
The effects of key geochemical parameters on Kd values for radionuclides in the host rock (pumice, sandstone) of a LLW repository were elucidated through a sensitivity analysis, using a thermodynamic speciation/sorption model for the elements Sr and Ni. The complex mineral assemblage of the rock was approximated by a component-additivity approach. Using published ion exchange and surface complexation parameters, Kd for both Sr and Ni could be well explained by the same model mineralogy and surface chemistry. Model results suggest that pCO2 can have a significant effect on Kd, and that a correct approximation of groundwater chemistry is a critical component of sorption modeling.
Uptake of Pb was investigated for different hydrated fresh and leached Portland and high-alumina cements, different CSH phases including tobermorite, portlandite, as well as for several relevant cement Al-minerals. Except for highly degraded cement, CSH minerals are the most important phases for Pb uptake. A systematic analysis of our data and a comparison with recent literature data for CSH phases  shows that Pb uptake is characterized by three trends: 1) between pH 10–13, Pb uptake decreases with increasing pH, 2) Pb uptake increases with increasing Fe content in the clinker, and 3) Pb uptake is dependent on the Pb concentration in the solution. Following these findings, an empirical model was developed based on regression analyses of uptake vs. Pb concentration, pH, and Fe content in the clinker. The resulting relation can predict Kd values for a large range of fresh and leached cements, as well as for individual cement minerals under different experimental conditions. Model application to independent data on cement phases, whole cement, and mortar gave very good agreements.
The basis of comparison for measuring developments in the Newly Independent States is the pre-Gorbachev (1985) Soviet Union. Domestically, that political system featured top-down rule by the Communist Party, which enjoyed constitutionally mandated monopoly status, strict party control of all branches of government and the mass media, ubiquitous intelligence apparati, generalized non-observance of human rights, as well as surveillance and repression of human rights activists and organizations. Ideologically, the state propagated and enforced Marxism-Leninism, and explicitly identified itself with that doctrine. The economy was planned, with institutionalized shortages of consumer goods, and the criminalization of most private, profit-oriented economic activity. Also characteristic of Soviet reality before 1985 was “police-state peace and quiet,” that is, relative security and safety from crime, and the absence of open ethnic conflict, let alone large-scale bloodshed and waves of refugees.
Reform, broadly speaking, therefore encompasses decentralization (of institutions of governance and decision-making), democratization (opening the political process by permitting pluralism and instituting fair elections, ending censorship, allowing freedom of speech, association and assembly, and letting non-governmental organizations influence policy), as well as market-oriented economic change. By that standard, Turkmenistan has changed since gaining independence, but is probably the least transformed former Soviet republic. The lack of reform is neither accidental nor due to uncontrollable circumstances; rather, it reflects a deliberate decision by the country's ruling elite to eschew policies initiated in Russia and the other Newly Independent States which, in the regime's view, have generated, or exacerbated, economic hardship, political conflict, civil unrest, ethnic tension, and in some cases, have led to ethnic warfare.
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