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This collection profiles understudied figures in the book and print trades of the seventeenth century. With an equal balance between women and men, it intervenes in the history of the trades, emphasising the broad range of material, cultural, and ideological work these people undertook. It offers a biographical introduction to each figure, placing them in their social, professional, and institutional settings. The collection considers varied print trade roles including that of the printer, publisher, paper-maker, and bookseller, as well as several specific trade networks and numerous textual forms. The biographies draw on extensive new archival research, with details of key sources for further study on each figure. Chronologically organised, this Element offers a primer both on numerous individual figures, and on the tribulations and innovations of the print trade in the century of revolution.
There is international variability in whether neurological determination of death (NDD) is conceptually defined based on permanent loss of brainstem function or “whole brain death.” Canadian guidelines are not definitive. Patients with infratentorial stroke may meet clinical criteria for NDD despite persistent cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative absence of supratentorial injury.
We performed a multicenter cohort study involving patients that died from ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in Alberta intensive care units from 2013 to 2019, focusing on those with infratentorial involvement. Medical records were reviewed to determine the incidence and proportion of patients that met clinical criteria for NDD; whether ancillary testing was performed; and if so, whether this demonstrated the absence of CBF.
There were 95 (27%) deaths from infratentorial and 263 (73%) from supratentorial stroke. Sixteen patients (17%) with infratentorial stroke had neurological examination consistent with NDD (0.55 cases per million per year). Among patients that underwent confirmatory evaluation for NDD with an apnea test, ancillary test (radionuclide scan), or both, ancillary testing was more common with infratentorial compared with supratentorial stroke (10/12 (85%) vs. 25/47 (53%), p = 0.04). Persistent CBF was detected in 6/10 (60%) patients with infratentorial compared with 0/25 with supratentorial stroke (p = 0.0001).
Infratentorial stroke leading to clinical criteria for NDD occurs with an annual incidence of about 0.55 per million. There is variability in clinicians’ use of ancillary testing. Persistent CBF was detected in more than half of patients that underwent radionuclide scans. Canadian consensus is needed to guide clinical practice.
If you squinted hard enough in early 1968, you just might be able to make out the faces of the Beatles. There they were, fans thought, in the tree behind Bob Dylan on the cover of his album John Wesley Harding. Dylan put them there, supposedly, as one of a number of clues for how to interpret the surprising, new LP. After all, didn’t the hat in the foreground of the image hide a stash of marijuana? Dylan must be concealing “the psychedelic aroma so exposed and prominent on the Beatles’ Sgt. Pepper’s LP to which John Wesley Harding is a reaction,” playfully claimed Columbia Records staff photographer John Berg, the man who had taken the photograph for the cover of the album.
Background: Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent healthcare-associated infections and transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. The WHO proposes a multimodal intervention strategy to improve hand hygiene in healthcare settings. In 2008, a voluntary national campaign for hand hygiene was implemented in the German healthcare system. The objective of this study was to evaluate participation, practices, and performance of hand hygiene in German acute-care hospitals. Methods: In 2008 a national hand hygiene campaign began in Germany. Based on voluntary participation, the campaign’s goal was to implement the WHO 5 Moments model, to establish a national surveillance system for compliance to hand hygiene, to improve availability of alcohol-based hand-rub (ABHR) dispensers at points of care, and to implement interdisciplinary executive boards at each hospital to ensure sustainable implementation. Annual data on ABHR consumption and patient days (PD) were collected within the national surveillance system (HAND-KISS) on the individual ward level and were validated. Direct observation of compliance was performed according the recommendations of the WHO. Results: Overall, 1,047 of 1,942 acute-care hospitals in Germany participated in the national hand hygiene campaign in 2018, covering 81,571,917 patient days. Moreover, 9,360 regular wards (RWs), 338 intermediate care units (IMCs) and 1,342 intensive care units (ICUs) provided data on ABHR consumption. Between 2007 and 2018 in the ICU, ABHR consumption increased continuously from 70 mL/PD (IQR, 52–98) to 129 mL/PD (IQR, 102–162). In intermediate care units, ABHR consumption increased from 40 mL/PD (IQR, 15–54) to 67 mL/PD (IQR, 46–95), and on regular wards, ABHR consumption increased from 14 mL/PD (IQR, 10–21) to 29 mL/PD (IQR, 22–39). These increases were especially pronounced in wards that continuously provided annual data for ABHR consumption over the past 12 years. In 2014, electronic documentation for direct observation of compliance to hand hygiene was established. From 2014 until 2018, 1,598,209 opportunities were observed on 1,907 wards of 422 hospitals. The median directly observed compliance in 2018 was 76% (IQR, 66%–84%). Median compliance to the 5 Moments was 71% (IQR, 57%–82%) before touching a patient, 68% (IQR, 51%–85%) before clean or aseptic procedures, 83% (IQR, 72%–92%) after body fluid exposure or risk, 84% (IQR, 75%–90%) after touching a patient, and 74% (IQR, 61%–84%) after touching patient surroundings. Conclusions: The WHO multimodal intervention strategy has been successfully established in German acute-care hospitals. A surveillance system for ABHR consumption and direct observation of compliance to hand hygiene are widely used by hospitals in Germany. Hand hygiene practices have significantly improved in the German healthcare system.
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-long bursts of radio emission of extragalactic origin. The nature or FRBs is still unknown. Whether all FRBs are representatives of the same source population, or whether multiple underlying populations exist, is also unknown. One class that stands out is that of the “repeaters”, i.e. FRBs from which multiple bursts have been detected. In these cases, appropriate models should be non-cataclysmic but yet being able to create powerful coherent radio emission. Magnetars are among those source types that are considered as possible explanation for (repeating) FRBs. This review will summarise the basic properties of FRBs and those of magnetars to provide a critical assessment of the possible physical connection between these classes of sources. We conclude that while magnetars may indeed be related to the FRB phenomenon, it is unlikely that they explain all FRBs, i.e. at least two classes of FRBs exist.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) Identify current barriers to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (2) Identify current facilitators to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (3) Utilize this knowledge to create and pilot a coordinated care model that will enhance PCIT and behavior consultation service outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Objectives 1 and 2: Two focus groups consisting of 8–10 behavior consultants will be conducted to gather initial information on barriers and facilitators to coordinated care. Participants will be recruited from the state-funded behavior consultation team, to represent consultation occurring in rural and urban settings. All focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. Focus groups will be provided with an initial 10-minute overview of PCIT, including theory, prescribed strategies, and mode of intervention. A grand tour question will then be asked to elicit consultant perceptions of PCIT (e.g., “What are your thoughts on the compatibility between PCIT and behavior consultation services”), followed by probe questions deigned to elicit more detailed information about any perceived differences based on philosophical approach; differences in what is recommended in childcare settings Versus at home, etc.; and perceived barriers to coordinated care between school and outpatient services (e.g., “What factors make coordinating care with outpatient providers challenging?). Participants will be asked about their willingness to participate in a second focus group to review materials created to enhance coordinated care, based on their feedback. Objective 3. Based on feedback from the focus groups and quantitative data regarding factors associated with PCIT outcomes, we will develop an enhanced childcare component(s) for eventual implementation. To confirm our approach, we will invite the members of both focus groups back for a second session, in which we provide them with the created materials and elicit their feedback. We will start with a grand tour question (e.g., “How do you think parents and teachers would react to these materials?”) and then follow-up with probe questions related to feasibility (e.g., “How do you anticipate using these tools?”), appropriateness (e.g., “How adequately do you feel these materials address concerns with coordinated care?”), and acceptability (e.g., “How likely are you to begin using these tools within your consultation?”). Both focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Barriers and facilitators to coordinated care will include individual (e.g., acceptability of PCIT framework) and system-level factors (e.g., ease of communication between providers). (2) There will be significant overlap in coordination between the first phase of PCIT (which focuses on positive parenting strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (3) There will be less compatibility between the second phase of PCIT (which focuses on disciplinary strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (4) A coordinated are model will be rated as more feasible, appropriate, and acceptable to behavior consultants than PCIT services as currently prescribed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Childhood disruptive behaviors are among the most frequent reasons for referral to outpatient child/adolescent mental health clinics (Sukhodolsky et al., 2016). Disruptive and aggressive behaviors are problematic, not only for victims of children who are aggressive but also for aggressive children as they age. Although effective treatments exist, families are often provided with conflicting strategies for behavior management by outpatient clinicians and behavior consultants in the daycare setting, thus providing children inconsistent feedback which will delay their attainment of new skills. These data will provide the initial foundation for the development of a coordinated care model that promotes treatment efficacy by improving the compatibility between clinic-based PCIT and daycare-based behavior consultation services.
Objectives: Concussions cause diverse symptoms that are often measured through a single symptom severity score. Researchers have postulated distinct dimensions of concussion symptoms, raising the possibility that total scores may not accurately represent their multidimensional nature. This study examined to what degree concussion symptoms, assessed by the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), reflect a unidimensional versus multidimensional construct to inform how the SCAT3 should be scored and advance efforts to identify distinct phenotypes of concussion. Methods: Data were aggregated across two prospective studies of sport-related concussion, yielding 219 high school and college athletes in the acute (<48 hr) post-injury period. Item-level ratings on the SCAT3 checklist were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We specified higher-order and bifactor models and compared their fit, interpretability, and external correlates. Results: The best-fitting model was a five-factor bifactor model that included a general factor on which all items loaded and four specific factors reflecting emotional symptoms, torpor, sensory sensitivities, and headache symptoms. The bifactor model demonstrated better discriminant validity than the counterpart higher-order model, in which the factors were highly correlated (r=.55–.91). Conclusions: The SCAT3 contains items that appear unidimensional, suggesting that it is appropriate to quantify concussion symptoms with total scores. However, evidence of multidimensionality was revealed using bifactor modeling. Additional work is needed to clarify the nature of factors identified by this model, explicate their clinical and research utility, and determine to what degree the model applies to other stages of injury recovery and patient subgroups. (JINS, 2018, 24, 793–804)
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at sub-millimeter waves has the potential to image the shadow of the black hole in the Galactic Center, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and thereby test basic predictions of the theory of general relativity. We investigate the imaging prospects of a new Space VLBI mission concept. The setup consists of two satellites in polar or equatorial circular Medium-Earth Orbits with slightly different radii, resulting in a dense spiral-shaped uv-coverage with long baselines, allowing for extremely high-resolution and high-fidelity imaging of radio sources. We simulate observations of a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics model of Sgr A* for this configuration with noise calculated from model system parameters. After gridding the uv-plane and averaging visibilities accumulated over multiple months of integration, images of Sgr A* with a resolution of up to 4 μ as could be reconstructed, allowing for stronger tests of general relativity and accretion models than with ground-based VLBI.
To investigate the potential dietary impact of the opening of new retailers of healthy foods.
Systematic review of the peer-reviewed research literature.
References published before November 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keyword searches.
The outcome of the review was change in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.
Of 3514 references retrieved, ninety-two articles were reviewed in full text, and twenty-three articles representing fifteen studies were included. Studies used post-test only (n 4), repeated cross-sectional (n 4) and repeated measures designs (n 7) to evaluate the dietary impact of supermarket (n 7), farmers’ market (n 4), produce stand (n 2) or mobile market (n 2) openings. Evidence of increased fruit and vegetable consumption was most consistent among adults who began shopping at the new retailer. Three of four repeated measures studies found modest, albeit not always statistically significant, increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (range 0·23–0·54 servings/d) at 6–12 months after baseline. Dietary change among residents of the broader community where the new retailer opened was less consistent.
The methodological quality of studies, including research designs, sampling methods, follow-up intervals and outcome measures, ranged widely. Future research should align methodologically with previous work to facilitate meta-analytic synthesis of results. Opening a new retailer may result in modest short-term increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults who choose to shop there, but the potential longer-term dietary impact on customers and its impact on the broader community remain unclear.
The challenges of detecting and localising Fast Radio Bursts in real time can be met with the use of Phased Array Feeds. One such system, capable of creating up to 36 simultaneous beams, is currently being commissioned at the Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany following testing at the 64 m Parkes radio telescope. The PAFINDER (Phased Array Feed FRB Finder) pipeline will be used with this receiver to enable real–time single–pulse detection and localisation.
Fifty years of pulsars also mean fifty years of using them as tools to probe other phenomena and physics. One prominent example is the usage of pulsars to test theories of gravity. Probing the quasi-stationary strong-field regime, pulsars allow high precision tests that will maintain their importance even in the era of gravitation wave observations with ground-based detectors. This contribution summarise the methods and status of the field and provides a brief outlook into the future.
To evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on suicidal ideation and behavior in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Post hoc analyses were conducted in patients from 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and a long-term, open-label extension study of levomilnacipran ER (40-120 mg/d) in adults with MDD. Analyses included incidence of suicide-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); incidence of Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) suicidal ideation (score=1–5) and behavior (score=6-10); percent of patients who shifted from no C-SSRS suicidal ideation/behavior at baseline to suicidal ideation during treatment (worsened from score=0 to score=1–5), or vice-versa (improved from score=1-5 to score=0).
Suicide-related TEAEs occurred in<1% of patients in the levomilnacipran ER studies. The incidence of C-SSRS suicidal ideation was 22.2%, 23.9%, and 21.7% for placebo, short-term levomilnacipran ER, and long-term levomilnacipran ER, respectively; C-SSRS suicidal behavior was<1% in all of these groups. In the short-term studies, the percentage of patients with C-SSRS shifts were as follows: worsening from score=0 to score=1–5 (placebo, 8.6%; levomilnacipran ER, 11.0%); improvement from score=1–5 to score=0 (placebo, 24.0%; levomilnacipran ER, 27.7%).
In adult MDD patients, the incidence of suicidal ideation and behavior was similar between placebo and short-term levomilnacipran ER as indicated by TEAE reports and C-SSRS scores. Worsening in C-SSRS scores was also similar between placebo and levomilnacipran ER. There was no indication of increased suicidality during longer courses of continued therapy. Together, these findings suggest that this medication is not associated with increased risks of suicidal ideation or behavior.
Infection prevention in electrophysiology (EP) laboratories is poorly characterized; thus, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using the SHEA Research Network. We found limited uptake of basic interventions, such as surveillance and appropriate peri-procedural antimicrobial use. Further study is needed to identify ways to improve infection prevention in this setting.
In studies of Holocaust representation and memory, scholars of literature and culture traditionally have focused on particular national contexts. At the same time, recent work has brought the Holocaust into the arena of the transnational, leading to a crossroads between localized and global understandings of Holocaust memory. Further complicating the issue are generational shifts that occur with the passage of time, and which render memory and representations of the Holocaust ever more mediated, commodified, and departicularized. Nowhere is the inquiry into Holocaust memory more fraught or potentially more productive than in German Studies, where scholars have struggled to address German guilt and responsibility while doing justice to the global impact of the Holocaust, and are increasingly facing the challenge of engaging with the broader, interdisciplinary, transnational field. Persistent Legacy connects the present, critical scholarly moment with this long disciplinary tradition, probing the relationship between German Studies and Holocaust Studies today. Fifteen prominent scholars explore how German Studies engages with Holocaust memory and representation, pursuingcritical questions concerning the borders between the two fields and how they are impacted by emerging scholarly methods, new areas of inquiry, and the changing place of Holocaust memory in contemporary Germany.
Contributors: David Bathrick, Stephan Braese, William Collins Donahue, Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann, Katja Garloff, Andreas Huyssen, Irene Kacandes, Jennifer M. Kapczynski, Sven Kramer, Erin McGlothlin, Leslie Morris, Brad Prager, Karen Remmler, Michael D. Richardson, Liliane Weissberg.
Erin McGlothlin and Jennifer M. Kapczynski are both Associate Professors in the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures at Washington University in St. Louis.