To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The origin of the extraordinary strengthening of the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 during cyclic loading at 700 °C was investigated by the use of advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Along with substantial change of the dislocation structure, nucleation of two distinct populations of nanoparticles was revealed. Fully coherent Cu-rich nanoparticles were observed to be homogeneously dispersed with high number density along with nanometer-sized incoherent NbC carbides precipitating on dislocations during cyclic loading. Probe-corrected high-angle annular dark-field STEM imaging was used to characterize the atomic structure of nanoparticles. Compositional analysis was conducted using both electron energy loss spectroscopy and high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. High-temperature exposure-induced precipitation of spatially dense coherent Cu-rich nanoparticles and strain-induced nucleation of incoherent NbC nanoparticles leads to retardation of dislocation movement. The pinning effects and associated obstacles to the dislocation motion prevent recovery and formation of the localized low-energy cellular structures. As a consequence, the alloy exhibits remarkable cyclic hardening at elevated temperatures.
Background: Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Methods: Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. Results: The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. Conclusions: There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.