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Animal welfare encompasses all aspects of an animal's life and the interactions between animals. Consequently, welfare must be measured across a variety of factors that consider aspects such as health, behaviour and mental state. Decisions regarding housing and grazing are central to farm management. In this study, two beef cattle systems and their herds were compared from weaning to slaughter across numerous indicators. One herd (‘HH’) were continuously housed, the other (‘HG’) were housed only during winter. Inspections of animals were conducted to assess body condition, cleanliness, diarrhoea, hairlessness, nasal discharge and ocular discharge. Hair and nasal mucus samples were taken for quantification of cortisol and serotonin. Qualitative behaviour assessments (QBA) were also conducted and performance monitored. Physical health indicators were similar between herds with the exception of nasal discharge which was more prevalent in HH (P < 0.001). During winter, QBA yielded differences between herds over PC1 (arousal) (P = 0.032), but not PC2 (mood) (P = 0.139). Through summer, there was a strong difference across both PC1 (P < 0.001) and PC2 (P = 0.002), with HG exhibiting more positive behaviour. A difference was found in hair cortisol levels, with the greatest concentrations observed in HG (P = 0.011), however such a pattern was not seen for nasal mucus cortisol or for serotonin. Overall, providing summer grazing (HG) appeared to afford welfare benefits to the cattle as shown with more positive QBA assessments, but also slightly better health indicators, notwithstanding the higher levels of cortisol in that group.
The aim of this study was to determine if there was an association between the presence of cytoplasmic strings (CS) and their characteristics, with blastocyst quality, development and clinical outcome in human blastocysts. This two-centre cohort study was performed between July 2017 and September 2018 and involved a total of 1152 blastocysts from 225 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). All embryos were cultured in Embryoscope+ and were assessed for CS using time-lapse images. A single assessor examined all blastocysts and reviewed videos using the EmbyroViewer® Software. Blastocyst quality was assessed on day 5 of embryo development. The number of CS, location and duration of their activity was recorded on days 5/6. A positive association between the presence of CS in human blastocysts with blastocyst quality was identified. Blastocysts with a higher number of CS present, were of higher quality and were in the more advanced stages of development. Top quality blastocysts had CS activity present for longer, as well as having a higher number of vesicles present travelling along the CS. Blastocysts that had CS present, had a significantly higher live birth rate. This study has confirmed that a higher number of CS and vesicles in human blastocysts is associated with top quality blastocysts and is not a negative predictor of development. They had a higher number of CS present that appeared earlier in development and, although ceased activity sooner, had a longer duration of activity. Blastocysts with CS had a significant increase in live birth rate.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Use an easily accessible medium to educate life science researchers and academic innovators interested in the commercialization of academic research at the University of Michigan (UM). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Life science research investigators and academic innovators interested in research commercialization and technology development from across the state of Michigan were invited to attend the Idea to Impact: The Translation & Commercialization of Academic Research webinar series, presented by Fast Forward Medical Innovation at the University of Michigan. The webinar series outlined the significance and critical milestones of developing novel therapeutics, medical devices, diagnostics, and digital health innovations, as well as essential collaborations with industry partners to translate a research-based idea into a product of impact. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 113 investigators and innovators from 28 different institutions, organizations, and companies, registered for the webinar series. Results (N=24) of an evaluation immediately following each webinar revealed that 100% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the series was effective in helping them to identify and describe commercialization resources, including funding, education, and mentorship, available at the University of Michigan and within the state. Participants stated that they “loved the practical information” “shared” and that the series was a “great overview that inspired a lot more questions.” The Fast Forward Medical Innovation team was then able to consult with participants to connect them with additional resources. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The data suggests that easily accessible and digestible commercialization education can make navigating the academic entrepreneurial ecosystem easier for investigators and innovators. The recorded webinar series, Idea to Impact: The Translation & Commercialization of Academic Research, serves this purpose.
Colleges and universities around the world engaged diverse strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baylor University, a community of ˜22,700 individuals, was 1 of the institutions which resumed and sustained operations. The key strategy was establishment of multidisciplinary teams to develop mitigation strategies and priority areas for action. This population-based team approach along with implementation of a “Swiss Cheese” risk mitigation model allowed small clusters to be rapidly addressed through testing, surveillance, tracing, isolation, and quarantine. These efforts were supported by health protocols including face coverings, social distancing, and compliance monitoring. As a result, activities were sustained from August 1 to December 8, 2020. There were 62,970 COVID-19 tests conducted with 1435 people testing positive for a positivity rate of 2.28%. A total of 1670 COVID-19 cases were identified with 235 self-reports. The mean number of tests per week was 3500 with approximately 80 of these positive (11/d). More than 60 student tracers were trained with over 120 personnel available to contact trace, at a ratio of 1 per 400 university members. The successes and lessons learned provide a framework and pathway for similar institutions to mitigate the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 and sustain operations during a global pandemic.
Videolaryngoscopes have been in existence for several decades but in the last decade have taken a central role in both difficult and routine airway management. During that time videolaryngoscopy has not only become embedded in most difficult airway algorithms but the technique has become part of core airway management skills and the use of awake videolaryngoscopy has increased. This chapter describes the various types of videolaryngoscopes, their roles, strengths and limitations. Strategies to optimise use of Macintosh and hyperangulated devices are described as well as which adjuncts are best suited to their use. The issue of ‘can see, cannot intubate’ is discussed along with techniques to overcome it. The role of videolaryngoscopy outside the operating theatre, in critical care, in the emergency department and in pre-hospital care is discussed in this and other chapters.
Management of the airway is an important and challenging aspect of many clinicians' work and is a source of complications and litigation. The new edition of this popular book remains a clear, practical and highly-illustrated guide to all necessary aspects of airway management. The book has been updated throughout, to cover all changes to best practice and clinical management and provides extensive coverage of the key skills and knowledge required to manage airways in a wide variety of patients and clinical settings. The best of the previous editions has been preserved, whilst new chapters on videolaryngoscopy, awake tracheal intubation, lung separation, airway ultrasonography, airway management in an epidemic and many more have been added. This is an essential text for anyone who manages the airway including trainees and specialists in anaesthesia, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, prehospital medicine as well as nurses and other healthcare professionals.
Most oviposition by Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) occurs near the top of the canopy in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, and larval abundance is influenced by the growth habit of plants. However, the vertical distribution of larvae within the canopy is not as well known. We evaluated the vertical distribution of H. zea larvae in determinate and indeterminate varieties, hypothesizing that larval distribution in the canopy would vary between these two growth habits and over time. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally infested replicated field experiment and two experimentally manipulated cage experiments. In the field experiment, flowering time was synchronized between the varieties by manipulating planting date, while infestation timing was manipulated in the cage experiments. Larvae were recovered using destructive sampling of individual soybean plants, and their vertical distribution by instar was recorded from three sampling points over time in each experiment. While larval population growth and development varied between the determinate and indeterminate varieties within and among experiments, we found little evidence that larvae have preference for different vertical locations in the canopy. This study lends support to the hypothesis that larval movement and location within soybean canopies do not result entirely from oviposition location and nutritional requirements.
Clinical trial participation among US Hispanics remains low, despite a significant effort by research institutions nationwide. ResearchMatch, a national online platform, has matched 113,372 individuals interested in participating in research with studies conducted by 8778 researchers. To increase accessibility to Spanish speakers, we translated the ResearchMatch platform into Spanish by implementing tenets of health literacy and respecting linguistic and cultural diversity across the US Hispanic population. We describe this multiphase process, preliminary results, and lessons learned.
Translation of the ResearchMatch site consisted of several activities including: (1) improving the English language site’s reading level, removing jargon, and using plain language; (2) obtaining a professional Spanish translation of the site and incorporating iterative revisions by a panel of bilingual community members from diverse Hispanic backgrounds; (3) technical development and launch; and (4) initial promotion.
The Spanish language version was launched in August 2018, after 11 months of development. Community input improved the initial translation, and early registration and use by researchers demonstrate the utility of Spanish ResearchMatch in engaging Hispanics. Over 12,500 volunteers in ResearchMatch self-identify as Hispanic (8.5%). From August 2018 to March 2020, 162 volunteers registered through the Spanish language version of ResearchMatch, and over 500 new and existing volunteers have registered a preference to receive messages about studies in Spanish.
By applying the principles of health literacy and cultural competence, we developed a Spanish language translation of ResearchMatch. Our multiphase approach to translation included key principles of community engagement that should prove informative to other multilingual web-based platforms.
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a damaging pest of many crops including soybean, Glycine max (L.), especially in the southern United States. Previous studies have concluded that oviposition and development of H. zea larvae mirror the phenology of soybean, with oviposition occurring during full bloom, younger larvae developing on blooms and leaves, intermediate aged larvae developing on varying tissue types, and older larvae developing on flowers and pods. In a field trial, we investigated the presence of natural infestations of H. zea larvae by instar in determinate and indeterminate soybean varieties. In complementary experiments, we artificially infested H. zea and allowed them to oviposit on plants within replicated cages (one with a determinate variety and two with an indeterminate variety). Plants were sampled weekly during the time larvae were present. In the natural infestation experiment, most larvae were found on blooms during R3 and were early to middle instars; by R4, most larvae were found on leaves and were middle to late instars. In contrast, in the cage study, most larvae were found on leaves regardless of soybean growth stage or larval stage. Determinate and indeterminate growth habit did not impact larval preference for different soybean tissue types. Our studies suggest H. zea larvae prefer specific tissue types, but also provide evidence that experimental design can influence the results. Finally, our finding of larval preference for leaves contrasts with findings from previous studies.
While it is known that patients with schizophrenia recognize facial emotions, specifically negative emotions, less accurately, little is known about how they misattribute these emotions to other emotions and whether such misattribution biases are associated with symptoms, course of the disorder, or certain cognitive functions.
Outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 73) and healthy controls (n = 30) performed a computerised Facial Emotion Attribution Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Patients were also rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Patients were poor at recognizing fearful and angry emotions and attributed fear to angry and angry to neutral expressions. Fear-as-anger misattributions were predicted independently by a longer duration of illness and WCST perseverative errors.
The findings show a bias towards misattributing fearful and angry facial emotions. The propensity for fear-as-anger misattribution biases increases as the length of time that the disorder is experienced increases and a more rigid style of information processing is used. This, at least in part, may be perpetuated by subtle fearfulness expressed by others while interacting with people with schizophrenia.