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We tested if an adjunctive sleep health (SH) intervention improved smoking cessation treatment response by increasing quit rates. We also examined if baseline sleep, and improvements in sleep in the first weeks of quitting, were associated with quitting at the end of treatment.
Treatment-seeking smokers (N = 29) aged 21–65 years were randomized to a SH intervention (n = 16), or general health (GH) control (n = 13) condition. Participants received six counseling sessions across 15-weeks: SH received smoking cessation + SH counseling; GH received smoking cessation + GH counseling. Counseling began 4-weeks before the target quit date (TQD), and varenicline treatment began 1-week prior to TQD. Smoking status and SH were assessed at baseline (week 1), TQD (week 4), 3 weeks after cessation (week 7), week 12, and at the end of treatment (EOT; week 15).
SH versus GH participants had higher Carbon Monoxide (CO) -verified, 7-day point prevalence abstinence at EOT (69% vs. 54%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40–10.69, P = 0.77). Higher baseline sleep efficiency (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.03–1.96, P = 0.03), predicted higher EOT cessation. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and baseline nicotine dependence.
Improving SH in treatment-seeking smokers prior to cessation warrants further examination as a viable strategy to promote cessation.
To review articles on the relationship of dietary and circulating micronutrients with sleep patterns, and to identify issues surrounding implications for future research and public health practice.
A systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched through January 2016.
Both experimental and observational studies were included. However, studies that focused on secondary sleep impairment due to comorbidities were excluded.
Individuals in different age groups, from infants to older adults.
A total of twenty-six articles were selected. In the articles reviewed, researchers generally supported a potential role of micronutrients, particularly Fe and Mg, in the development of sleep stages among infants and in reversing age-related alterations in sleep architecture in older adults. Micronutrient status has also been linked to sleep duration, with sleep duration positively associated with Fe, Zn and Mg levels, and negatively associated with Cu, K and vitamin B12 levels. The mechanisms underlying these relationships include the impact of micronutrients on excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters and the expression of circadian genes.
Although the number of studies on the relationship between micronutrient status and sleep remains low, evidence has emerged that suggests a link between dietary/circulating micronutrients and sleep. Future research is needed to investigate the dose-dependent as well as the longitudinal relationships between micronutrient levels and human sleep across populations, test the interactions among micronutrients on sleep outcomes, and ultimately examine the clinical relevance of micronutrients on sleep health.
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