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Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2–6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4–6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of α-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38 % of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25 % of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3·8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.
The complex relationship between masculinity and religion, as experienced in both the secular and ecclesiastical worlds, forms the focus for this volume, whose range encompasses the rabbis of the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmud, and moves via Carolingian and Norman France, Siena, Antioch, and high and late medieval England to the eve of the Reformation. Chapters investigate the creation and reconstitution of different expressions of masculine identity, from the clerical enthusiasts for marriage to the lay practitioners of chastity, from crusading bishops to holy kings. They also consider the extent to which lay and clerical understandings of masculinity existed in an unstable dialectical relationship, at times sharing similar features, at others pointedly different, co-opting and rejecting features of the other; the articles show this interplay to be more far more complicated than a simple linear narrative of either increasing divergence, or of clerical colonization of lay masculinity. They also challenge conventional historiographies of the adoption of clerical celibacy, of the decline of monasticism and the gendered nature of piety. Patricia Cullum is Head of History at the University of Huddersfield; Katherine J. Lewis is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Huddersfield. Contributors: James G. Clark, P.H. Cullum, Kirsten A. Fenton, Joanna Huntington, Katherine J. Lewis, Matthew Mesley, Catherine Sanok, Michael L. Satlow, Rachel Stone, Jennifer D. Thibodeaux, Marita von Weissenberg
Charles Darwin's tangled bank provides one of the best-known early descriptions of an ecosystem:
It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner…
This description highlights much of the complexity of ecosystems, comprising various biotic components (plants, vertebrates and invertebrates), abiotic factors (soil) and environmental conditions (humidity). Even though this list comprises only a fraction of the likely diversity within the ecosystem, and Darwin has combined many individual species into single groups (plants, birds, insects), the stated inter-dependencies emphasise the large number of potential direct and indirect interactions that may occur among the various components, and between them and the environment.
Understanding the functioning of ecosystems, determining the factors underlying their structure and predicting their responses to perturbations are major challenges that have formed the lifeblood of population, community and ecosystem ecology for decades. Given the daunting task of addressing these issues empirically, mathematical models have played a vital role in this research. By simplifying the complexity of an ecosystem, formalising hypotheses and often producing testable predictions, mathematical models can provide invaluable insights into the processes shaping ecosystems and, from an applied perspective, inform the development of management policies (e.g. species conservation, land management, harvesting regimes).
Purpose: Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in children has been reported it is not widely used due to concerns over safety. Detailed analyses of measurements outlined by the ACC consensus statement on IVUS have not been reported in children. We report our safety and analysis data to date. Procedures: IVUS of the left anterior descending was performed with mechanised pullback concurrently with surveillance coronary angiography. Procedure and fluoroscopy screening times were compared with a second group of patients who experienced coronary angiography alone. Analysis was performed to measure vessel and lumen area, vessel and lumen diameters and intimal thickness for serial slices at fixed intervals from a distal identification point. Mean atheroma burden, mean maximum intimal thickness (MIT) and overall maximal intimal thickness were determined for each study. Results: Twenty-seven procedures were analysed. Table 1 shows patient demographics and information relating to IVUS analysis. Details of procedure and fluoroscopy time for both IVUS and coronary angiography groups are presented in Table 2. No complications were encountered. Routine coronary angiography was normal in all but one patient. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the safety of IVUS for coronary surveillance in children. When compared to coronary angiography alone procedure time and screening time are increased but we feel this is outweighed by the increased sensitivity of IVUS. Fifty-two percent of children have an IMT > 0.5 mm despite normal angiography. Such detailed analysis would appear central to future research into paediatric coronary disease.
We describe a 9-year-old girl who was noted to have eosinophilic myocarditis in her native heart after it was explanted during cardiac transplantation. On the basis of absence of evidence for primary or secondary eosinophilia, we suggest that the prolonged use of dobutamine prior to transplantation might have induced the eosinophilic myocarditis.
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