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An electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) study using a monochromator transmission electron microscope was conducted for investigating the dielectric response of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) owing to interband transitions characteristic to chiral structures. Individual chiral structures of the SWCNTs were determined by electron diffraction patterns. EELS spectra obtained from isolated SWCNTs showed sharp peaks below π plasmon energy of 5 eV, which were attributed to the characteristic interband transitions of SWCNTs. In addition, unexpected shoulder structures were observed at the higher energy side of each sharp peak. Simulations of EELS spectra by using the continuum dielectric theory showed that an origin of the shoulder structures was because of the surface dipole mode along the circumference direction of the SWCNT. It was noticed that the electron excitation energies obtained by EELS were slightly higher than those of optical studies, which might be because of the inelastic scattering process with the momentum transfers. To interpret the discrepancy between the EELS and optical experiments, it is necessary to conduct more accurate simulation including the first principle calculation for the band structure of SWCNTs.
Electron-beam-induced soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) that uses a grating spectrometer has been introduced to a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) for characterizing desired specimen areas of bulk materials. The spectrometer was designed as a grazing incidence flat-field optics by using aberration corrected (varied line spacing) gratings and a multichannel plate detector combined with a charge-coupled device camera, which has already been applied to a transmission electron microscope. The best resolution was confirmed as 0.13 eV at Mg L-emission (50 eV), which is comparable with that of recent dedicated electron energy-loss spectroscopy instruments. This SXES-SEM instrument presents density of states of simple metals of bulk Mg and Li. Apparent band-structure effects have been observed in Si L-emission of Si wafer, P L-emission of GaP wafer, and Al L-emissions of intermetallic compounds of AlCo, AlPd, Al2Pt, and Al2Au.