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Teachers in schools, tutors in colleges, and lecturers in universities are all required to have specific teaching qualifications. As part of the qualification, it is normal to study tried and tested pedological theories. Some examples are Bloom’s Taxonomy, Constructivism, and Experiential Learning. This paper identifies a gap in the information and knowledge required of student design engineers studying on a full-time course, when compared to part-time students. To redress this gap, it is suggested that no new theories are required but just a new method of applying an old theory, the application of Bloom’s Taxonomy in reverse alongside reverse engineering. An example of applying this method to a class of design engineers in their final year of a BEng (Hons) Mechanical Engineering is provided.
Written by international practitioners and scholars, this pioneering work offers insights into the peace mediation practice and explains how multifaceted assistance has become an indispensable part of it. With its policy focus and real-world examples, this is a go-to resource for researchers and advisers involved in peace processes.
This volume comes at a time when the United Nations, regional organizations and their Member States are actively seeking new ways of better using mediation to sustain peace. It is also a moment where multilateralism and the principles of the rules-based international order for conflict resolution are under strain. Operational and practical challenges for mediators have multiplied in a world where the global–local nexus has become tighter and is overshadowed by growing transnational threats such as terrorism, cybercrime and climate change. Conflicts have fundamentally changed since the end of the 20th century, moving away from interstate conflicts, or conflicts between states and secessionist movements that can easily be characterized as conflicts about sovereignty, to conflicts that engage whole societies and involve multiple conflict actors with multiple competing priorities (Griffiths and Whitfield, 2010).
In this context there is renewed international attention being paid to mediation as a form of conflict resolution. The term ‘peace mediation’ is increasingly used as a catchall term to include a wide range of activities ranging from high-level diplomacy to grass roots peacebuilding, reflecting a much greater interest in the idea of multi-track diplomacy and the contribution that mediation can make at all levels of a conflicted society. In 2016 the UN General Assembly (UNGA) acknowledged that ‘effective mediation and mediation support require systematic efforts at all levels’. In a landmark resolution adopted by consensus of all Member States, UNGA underlined that ‘timely conflict analysis, development of case-specific strategic road maps for mediation drawing on best practices and lessons learned, and identification of appropriate expertise’ are vital. This turn reflects a significant evolution in dominant understandings of mediation and peace support in policy and practice that started with the shift from an exclusively state-centric approach towards a model rooted in the ‘liberal consensus’ on the value of rule of law and rights-based approaches to peacemaking (Richmond, 2018). It is a new direction from the UN within the context of its 75-year mandate for mediation and good offices.
The evolving discourse on peace mediation shows that the bar for providing assistance and support to conflicted parties is being set progressively higher, reflecting, for some, the aspirations of the international community to handle conflict more effectively and more sustainably.
Conventional depot antipsychotics can provide constant pharmacologic treatment, eliminating partial compliance and reducing relapse risk. Atypical antipsychotics, have improved clinical profiles but require daily dosing, compromising their overall effectiveness. As oral risperidone provides safety and efficacy benefits over oral haloperidol, improvements may be realized by replacing conventional with atypical agents in long-acting therapy. This report examines 50-weeks of long-acting risperidone therapy in patients previously stabilized with conventional depot antipsychotics.
A multi-center, open-label study enrolled 725 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, judged clinically stable and maintained on stable antipsychotic doses for ≥4 weeks. Assignment by clinician judgment to receive 25–75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 50 weeks followed, with performance of standard safety and efficacy assessments. Data are presented on patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at study entry.
In the 188 (25.9%) patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at entry, mild-to-moderate mean (±S.D.) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-total scores improved significantly after receiving long-acting risperidone (64.2 ± 18.9 to 58.2 ± 20.3; P < 0.001). Clinical improvement of ≥20%, 40%, or 60% reduction in PANSS-total score, occurred in 52%, 34%, and 16% of patients, respectively. ESRS subjective ratings and objective physician ratings (Parkinsonism) decreased significantly (P < 0.001).
Stable patients with mild, residual symptomatology treated with conventional depot antipsychotics experienced significant improvement in psychiatric and movement disorder symptomatology following 1-year of treatment with long-acting risperidone.
Accurate psychometrics benefit from assessing given constructs within specifically defined contexts. The assessment of context-specific irrational beliefs as put forth in rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT), under the three basic psychological needs described in self-determination theory (SDT), represents a new path for research. Under the umbrella of ‘positive psychology’, a new scale for adolescents combining REBT and SDT is the first step towards conceptualizing irrational beliefs within the three basic psychological needs. The integration of REBT and SDT would provide a more fully integrated view of adolescent mental health, and as such could provide a more cost-effective approach for preventing cognitive, emotive and behavioural disturbances in young people.
The main aim of this paper is to outline the development and validation of the Rational Emotive Self Determination Scale for Adolescents (RESD-A), which measures irrational beliefs about the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness).
To achieve this main study aim, we report the results of four studies that test the factor structure, internal consistency, construct, predictive validity, and test–re-test reliability of the 51-item RESD-A, within samples of Turkish adolescents.
Data analyses confirmed the theoretical expectations and yielded promising results for the validity and reliability of the RESD-A.
The results suggest that assessment of irrational beliefs in the context of autonomy, competence and relatedness is possible and valuable for the treatment of adolescents.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The cognitive restructuring of maladaptive beliefs within many cognitive behavioural psychotherapies typically encourages the client to undertake self-reflection. However, whilst self-consciousness can aid self-regulation, it is also implicated in a broad Grange of psychopathologies. The extent to which self-consciousness is associated with psychological distress is yet to be fully determined, but recent literature suggests that irrational beliefs, as proposed within rational emotive behaviour theory (REBT) may play an important role.
The aim of the study was to test the mediational effects of self-consciousness, specifically reflection and rumination, on the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. Based on past research, it was hypothesized that reflection and rumination would mediate the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. We expected irrational beliefs to interact with rumination to positively predict psychological distress, and irrational beliefs to interact with reflection to negatively predict psychological distress.
The present research tested a structural equation model (SEM) in which rumination and reflection mediated the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress.
Results indicated that rumination mediates the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. However, in contrast to our hypotheses, significant mediation did not emerge for reflection.
This study is the first to show how irrational beliefs and rumination interact to predict psychopathology using advanced statistical techniques. However, future research is needed to determine whether similar mediational effects are evident with rational beliefs as opposed to irrational beliefs.
This chapter explores current research on how young people make judgements about the information they encounter. There will be a discussion on why some young people appear to trust, without question, online information whilst others show remarkable powers of insight and critique. Evidence on how this might affect their physical and mental well-being will be provided. Why this is important both in educational and political terms is discussed. There will then be an exploration of the approaches that can be employed to help young people develop a more discerning approach to engaging with the information they see, hear and read in any context.
The discussion put forward here is based upon a synthesis of research findings involving three groups of young people from the UK – 16–17-year-olds, at a secondary school, 18–19-year-old university students in their first undergraduate year and finally 18–24-year-old men recruited for an experiment, mostly undergraduates – all carried out in the UK. For the first two groups there was a concern voiced by teachers and academic tutors respectively that their students exhibited a noticeable lack of the necessary capabilities to make well-calibrated judgements in order to select good-quality information to support their work for assignments. The 16–17-year-olds were working towards gaining their Extended Project Qualification (EPQ)1 – a mini-dissertation in addition to their A-level study. Walton et al. (2018a) provide a comprehensive reflection of these studies. The 18–19-year-olds were working towards completing their first assignment and had to find good quality information about a sporting issue of their choice (see Walton and Hepworth, 2011; 2013 for a more detailed account). These two groups are quite similar in their context and we will see that their comments and experiences and our analyses align in an encouraging way. How? They both appear to indicate that most (but by no means all) students present with remarkably poor capabilities in making judgements about information, which prevent them from making the most suitable choices. The third group were recruited to find out whether the cognitive process of information discernment has a physiological component. Why? We wanted to find out whether being good at information discernment is related to positive responses to stress.
At some point during our inaugural research team workshop we started to generate many different ideas about how to increase participation in heritage decision-making. We tried to keep track as the questions flowed by writing recurring words on pieces of paper, to be linked, connected and ordered at some later point. The words were in some ways not surprising. Heritage, of course. Stewardship. Custodianship. Expert. Leadership. Institutions. Ownership. Differences/Tensions. Scale. Personal. Values. Voice (‘+ not heard’, was added in another hand in biro). So far, so predictable. These words, after all, index the big conceptual challenges that have been identified to a greater or lesser extent in heritage policy, practice and its research for the last four decades. Yet as we spoke, each of these terms started to change in dimension. As the different people around the table gave examples, and checked they understood each other's contributions, the familiar words were in the process of gathering new uncertainties and ambiguities as well as new colours, textures, shapes and potentials.
We were brought together by a funding scheme that supported not just collaborative research, but also its collaborative design. While we did have a shared interest in our overall question ‘how should heritage decisions be made?’, we – as you will see by how we describe ourselves – came to this question, and our first workshop, from quite different places and different trajectories. To frame it in the language implied by this book, we carried with us different inheritances – legacies – from our disciplines, professional backgrounds, organisations and places. As such, the other crucial thing we had in common was an interest in the potential for rethinking ‘heritage’ offered by drawing on many different perspectives and working across hierarchies and institutional boundaries. We used both these shared commitments and our different perspectives to collaboratively design our project.
In this chapter we tell the story of our project with the aim of showing how our research emerged through dynamic connections between know-how generated through practitioner reflections, dialogue, characterised by conversations between us as a project team and conceptual innovation, in terms of the way this allowed us to think about heritage and decision making differently.