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Teachers in schools, tutors in colleges, and lecturers in universities are all required to have specific teaching qualifications. As part of the qualification, it is normal to study tried and tested pedological theories. Some examples are Bloom’s Taxonomy, Constructivism, and Experiential Learning. This paper identifies a gap in the information and knowledge required of student design engineers studying on a full-time course, when compared to part-time students. To redress this gap, it is suggested that no new theories are required but just a new method of applying an old theory, the application of Bloom’s Taxonomy in reverse alongside reverse engineering. An example of applying this method to a class of design engineers in their final year of a BEng (Hons) Mechanical Engineering is provided.
Conventional depot antipsychotics can provide constant pharmacologic treatment, eliminating partial compliance and reducing relapse risk. Atypical antipsychotics, have improved clinical profiles but require daily dosing, compromising their overall effectiveness. As oral risperidone provides safety and efficacy benefits over oral haloperidol, improvements may be realized by replacing conventional with atypical agents in long-acting therapy. This report examines 50-weeks of long-acting risperidone therapy in patients previously stabilized with conventional depot antipsychotics.
A multi-center, open-label study enrolled 725 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, judged clinically stable and maintained on stable antipsychotic doses for ≥4 weeks. Assignment by clinician judgment to receive 25–75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 50 weeks followed, with performance of standard safety and efficacy assessments. Data are presented on patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at study entry.
In the 188 (25.9%) patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at entry, mild-to-moderate mean (±S.D.) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-total scores improved significantly after receiving long-acting risperidone (64.2 ± 18.9 to 58.2 ± 20.3; P < 0.001). Clinical improvement of ≥20%, 40%, or 60% reduction in PANSS-total score, occurred in 52%, 34%, and 16% of patients, respectively. ESRS subjective ratings and objective physician ratings (Parkinsonism) decreased significantly (P < 0.001).
Stable patients with mild, residual symptomatology treated with conventional depot antipsychotics experienced significant improvement in psychiatric and movement disorder symptomatology following 1-year of treatment with long-acting risperidone.
Accurate psychometrics benefit from assessing given constructs within specifically defined contexts. The assessment of context-specific irrational beliefs as put forth in rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT), under the three basic psychological needs described in self-determination theory (SDT), represents a new path for research. Under the umbrella of ‘positive psychology’, a new scale for adolescents combining REBT and SDT is the first step towards conceptualizing irrational beliefs within the three basic psychological needs. The integration of REBT and SDT would provide a more fully integrated view of adolescent mental health, and as such could provide a more cost-effective approach for preventing cognitive, emotive and behavioural disturbances in young people.
The main aim of this paper is to outline the development and validation of the Rational Emotive Self Determination Scale for Adolescents (RESD-A), which measures irrational beliefs about the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness).
To achieve this main study aim, we report the results of four studies that test the factor structure, internal consistency, construct, predictive validity, and test–re-test reliability of the 51-item RESD-A, within samples of Turkish adolescents.
Data analyses confirmed the theoretical expectations and yielded promising results for the validity and reliability of the RESD-A.
The results suggest that assessment of irrational beliefs in the context of autonomy, competence and relatedness is possible and valuable for the treatment of adolescents.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The cognitive restructuring of maladaptive beliefs within many cognitive behavioural psychotherapies typically encourages the client to undertake self-reflection. However, whilst self-consciousness can aid self-regulation, it is also implicated in a broad Grange of psychopathologies. The extent to which self-consciousness is associated with psychological distress is yet to be fully determined, but recent literature suggests that irrational beliefs, as proposed within rational emotive behaviour theory (REBT) may play an important role.
The aim of the study was to test the mediational effects of self-consciousness, specifically reflection and rumination, on the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. Based on past research, it was hypothesized that reflection and rumination would mediate the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. We expected irrational beliefs to interact with rumination to positively predict psychological distress, and irrational beliefs to interact with reflection to negatively predict psychological distress.
The present research tested a structural equation model (SEM) in which rumination and reflection mediated the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress.
Results indicated that rumination mediates the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. However, in contrast to our hypotheses, significant mediation did not emerge for reflection.
This study is the first to show how irrational beliefs and rumination interact to predict psychopathology using advanced statistical techniques. However, future research is needed to determine whether similar mediational effects are evident with rational beliefs as opposed to irrational beliefs.
This chapter explores current research on how young people make judgements about the information they encounter. There will be a discussion on why some young people appear to trust, without question, online information whilst others show remarkable powers of insight and critique. Evidence on how this might affect their physical and mental well-being will be provided. Why this is important both in educational and political terms is discussed. There will then be an exploration of the approaches that can be employed to help young people develop a more discerning approach to engaging with the information they see, hear and read in any context.
The discussion put forward here is based upon a synthesis of research findings involving three groups of young people from the UK – 16–17-year-olds, at a secondary school, 18–19-year-old university students in their first undergraduate year and finally 18–24-year-old men recruited for an experiment, mostly undergraduates – all carried out in the UK. For the first two groups there was a concern voiced by teachers and academic tutors respectively that their students exhibited a noticeable lack of the necessary capabilities to make well-calibrated judgements in order to select good-quality information to support their work for assignments. The 16–17-year-olds were working towards gaining their Extended Project Qualification (EPQ)1 – a mini-dissertation in addition to their A-level study. Walton et al. (2018a) provide a comprehensive reflection of these studies. The 18–19-year-olds were working towards completing their first assignment and had to find good quality information about a sporting issue of their choice (see Walton and Hepworth, 2011; 2013 for a more detailed account). These two groups are quite similar in their context and we will see that their comments and experiences and our analyses align in an encouraging way. How? They both appear to indicate that most (but by no means all) students present with remarkably poor capabilities in making judgements about information, which prevent them from making the most suitable choices. The third group were recruited to find out whether the cognitive process of information discernment has a physiological component. Why? We wanted to find out whether being good at information discernment is related to positive responses to stress.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
We have found a new species of Autolytinae (Annelida, Syllidae), Proceraea janetae, feeding on the scleractinian coral Montastrea cavernosa in coral reefs surrounding the Grand Cayman Island (Cayman Islands, British West Indies). The new species has a characteristic combination of transversal brown markings on the segmental margins and diffuse white mid-dorsal transverse bars, together with a diffuse white mid-dorsal longitudinal band. Antennae are brown, tentacular cirri are pale, the first dorsal cirri are white with pale base; the second dorsal cirri are pale, and the remaining dorsal cirri are alternately long, bright yellow-orange with brownish tips and short, entirely brown. The trepan has 18 tricuspid teeth in one ring. There are 9 teeth with all cuspids equally long and 9 with a longer median cuspid, arranged in an alternating pattern. We describe and illustrate the feeding behaviour of the new species, which appears to be closer to parasitism rather than to specialized predation. Proceraea janetae sp. nov. is the second polychaete, and the first syllid, known to feed on scleractinian corals.
We present an update of the ‘key points’ from the Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment (ACCE) report that was published by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in 2009. We summarise subsequent advances in knowledge concerning how the climates of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean have changed in the past, how they might change in the future, and examine the associated impacts on the marine and terrestrial biota. We also incorporate relevant material presented by SCAR to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and make use of emerging results that will form part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report.
We report the latest results of 225 GHz atmospheric opacity measurements from two Arctic sites; one on high coastal terrain near the Eureka weather station, on Ellesmere Island, Canada, and the other at the Summit Station near the peak of the Greenland icecap. This is a campaign to search for a site to deploy a new telescope for submillimeter Very Long Baseline Interferometry and THz astronomy in the northern hemisphere. Since 2011, we have obtained 3 months of winter data near Eureka, and about one year of data at Summit Station. The results indicate that these sites offer a highly transparent atmosphere for observations in submillimeter wavelengths. Summit Station is particularly excellent, and its zenith opacity at 225 GHz is statistically similar to the Atacama Large Milllimeter/submillimeter Array site in Chile. In winter, the opacity at Summit Station is even comparable to that observed at the South Pole.
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are being extensively investigated as a means of miniaturizing piezoelectric sensors thereby offering higher sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and ability to form compact multi-sensor arrays. Such devices typically employ one or more silicon micromechanical elements (e.g. membranes, cantilever beams and tethered proof masses) driven electromechanically by a polycrystalline piezoelectric film. The use of polycrystalline materials results in inherently less stable and irreproducible device characteristics. For elevated operating temperatures, more robust and refractory materials are also required. In this paper, we describe a MEMS microresonator array capable of operating to temperatures exceeding 600°C enabled by the integration of epitaxially grown piezoelectric AlN films onto single crystal SiC tethered plates. The operation of the microresonators as sensors is illustrated by examining their response to temperature, pressure and chemical analytes.