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Sepiolite-based composites have great potential for application as flame-retardant and thermal-insulation material but their application and development are limited by poor mechanical properties. The objective of the present study was to combine polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) with sepiolite (Sep) to improve its aerogel strength. A universal testing machine, thermogravimetry, and microcalorimetry were used to investigate the mechanical properties, thermal-stability, and flame-retardant properties, respectively, of aerogels. The results indicated that KH-550 can enhance effectively the mechanical properties and flame retardancy of aerogels. The compressive modulus of PVA/Sep vs KH-550/PVA/Sep aerogel was 209.28 vs. 474.43 kPa, the LOI index changed from 26.4 to 30.4%. The porosity of the aerogels was > 96% and the density was < 0.05 g/cm3. The thermal conductivity remained at between 0.0340 and 0.0390 W/(m·K), and the aerogel could recover to > 85% after a 50% compressive deformation. These data indicated that Sep-based aerogel would act as a flame retardant and a thermal insulating material with excellent mechanical properties.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
The levels of drought tolerance and nucleotide polymorphism at the CBF4 locus were examined in a world-wide sample of 17 core accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that different accessions exhibited considerable differences in adaptation to drought stress. Compared with Columbia accession, the frequency of nucleotide polymorphism at the CBF4 locus of 25av, 203av and 244av accessions, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (Indel), was high, on average 1 SNP per 35.8 bp and 1 Indel per 143 bp. No significance in all regions of Tajima's D test indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could explain the nucleotide polymorphism in this CBF4 gene region. The higher polymorphism was the result of purification selection. Nucleotide polymorphism in the non-coding region was three times higher than in the coding region. This might indicate a recent relaxation of selection pressures on the non-coding region of CBF4 gene. In the coding region of CBF4, SNP frequency was 1 SNP per 96.4 bp and one non-synonymous mutation was detected from 25av, 203av and 244av accessions: the amino acid variation gly↔val at position 205, caused by the nucleotide variation G↔T at position 1034 (corresponding to the nucleotide at position 19 696 of GenBank accession no. AB015478 as 1). Furthermore, four differential SNPs were discovered in haplotype 6 constituted by 203av, one of them located in the 3′ non-coding region (A↔C at position 1106) and the others in the 5′ non-coding region (A↔G, A↔C and G↔A at positions 27, 129 and 171, respectively). The drought tolerance assay indicated that accession 203av was the best at tolerating water deficiency. We propose that haplotype 6 is consistent with its drought tolerance.
Bonding strength is commonly measured by various kinds of single cycle tests such as scratch tests or indentation tests. These tests all reflect complex composite properties - both plastic and elastic properties of the film and the substrate - as well as the bonding strength. In many cases experimental critical value of these single cycle tests is controlled by film or substrate strength or ductility rather than bonding strength. In these cases, the single cycle test should be evaluated in terms of the specific property which controls failure and should not be taken as a measure of “bonding strength.” However, the interfacial fatigue strength measured at 5X106 cycles is shown to be measurable over a large range of bonding strengths and composite properties. And further, this interface fatigue strength is insensitive to the composite properties. The complementary nature of these two types of tests is demonstrated for various TiN-based hard coatings on various steel and cemented carbide substrates.
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