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The majority of plant viral disease is transmitted and spread by insect vectors in the field. The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is the only efficient vector for rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating plant virus that infects multiple grain crops, including rice, maize, and wheat. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in various biological processes. However, little is known about whether ABC transporters affect virus infection in insects. In this study, RBSDV accumulation was significantly reduced in L. striatellus after treatment with verapamil, an effective inhibitor of ABC transporters. Thirty-four ABC transporter genes were identified in L. striatellus and expression analysis showed that LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, after RBSDV infection. LsABCF2 and LsABCG9 were expressed during all developmental stages, and LsABCG9 was highly expressed in the midgut of L. striatellus. Knockdown of LsABCF2 promoted RBSDV accumulation, while knockdown of LsABCG9 suppressed RBSDV accumulation in L. striatellus. Our data showed that L. striatellus might upregulate the expression of LsABCF2 and downregulate LsABCG9 expression to suppress RBSDV infection. These results will contribute to understanding the effects of ABC transporters on virus transmission and provide theoretical basis for virus management in the field.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of quality of life (QOL) in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
In the cross-sectional study, 66 lower-limb amputees were recruited. The prosthetics-related QOL was assessed using the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) in terms of the scales of utility, appearance, sounds, residual limb health, perceived response, frustration, social burden, ambulation, and well-being. The score of each PEQ subscale was calculated and compared among the cohorts with different demographic characteristics.
The PEQ scores showed that the scales of sounds, residual limb health, and frustration were still low in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The comparison of PEQ scales among cohorts with different demographic characteristics indicated that the potential demographic risk factors, namely, age, marital status, educational level, living independence, and comorbidity, were associated with prosthesis-related QOL.
The prosthesis-related QOL of the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake has been partly documented in this study. The potential demographic risk factors associated with QOL of amputees were also identified. These findings could enhance the understanding of prosthesis-related QOL of lower-limb amputees sustained in an earthquake and facilitate the optimization of post-disaster rehabilitation strategies.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
Anxiety disorders are widespread across the world. A systematic understanding of the disease burden, temporal trend and risk factors of anxiety disorders provides the essential foundation for targeted public policies on mental health at the national, regional, and global levels.
The estimation of anxiety disorders in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 using systematic review was conducted to describe incidence, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and regions from 1990 to 2019. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends in anxiety disorders burden by sex, region and age over the past 30 years and analysed the impact of epidemiological and demographic changes on anxiety disorders.
Globally, 45.82 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 37.14, 55.62] million incident cases of anxiety disorders, 301.39 million (95% UI: 252.63, 356.00) prevalent cases and 28.68 (95% UI: 19.86, 39.32) million DALYs were estimated in 2019. Although the overall age-standardised burden rate of anxiety disorders remained stable over the past three decades, the latest absolute number of anxiety disorders increased by 50% from 1990. We observed huge disparities in both age-standardised burden rate and changing trend of anxiety disorders in sex, country and age. In 2019, 7.07% of the global DALYs due to anxiety disorders were attributable to bullying victimisation, mainly among the population aged 5–39 years, and the proportion increased in almost all countries and territories compared with 1990.
Anxiety disorder is still the most common mental illness in the world and has a striking impact on the global burden of disease. Controlling potential risk factors, such as bullying, establishing effective mental health knowledge dissemination and diversifying intervention strategies adapted to specific characteristics will reduce the burden of anxiety disorders.
Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature, unit-cell parameters and space group for eluxadoline nitrate monohydrate, C32H35N5O5⋅2HNO3⋅H2O, are reported [a = 11.066(5) Å, b = 13.452(6) Å, c = 24.373(9) Å, unit-cell volume V = 3628.15 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.344 g⋅cm−3, and space group P212121]. All the diffraction peaks in the experimental pattern have been indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group.
In December 2019, cases of severe coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rapidly progressed to acute respiratory failure. This study aims to assess the association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 210 patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan from 27 January 2020 to 9 March 2020. Peripheral blood samples were collected and examined for lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry. Associations between tertiles of NLR and the incidence of severe illness were analysed by logistic regression.
Of the 210 patients with COVID-19, 87 were diagnosed as severe cases. The mean NLR of the severe group was higher than that of the mild group (6.6 vs. 3.3, P < 0.001). The highest tertile of NLR (5.1–19.7) exhibited a 5.9-fold (95% CI 1.3–28.5) increased incidence of severity relative to that of the lowest tertile (0.6–2.5) after adjustments for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounders. The number of T cells significantly decreased in the severe group (0.5 vs. 0.9, P < 0.001). COVID-19 might mainly act on lymphocytes, particularly T lymphocytes. NLR was identified as an early risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness. Patients with increased NLR should be admitted to an isolation ward with respiratory monitoring and supportive care.
In this work ice breaking caused by a pair of interacting collapsing bubbles was studied by an experimental approach. The bubbles were generated by an underwater electric discharge simultaneously, positioned either horizontally or vertically below a floating ice plate and observed via high-speed photography. The bubble-induced shock waves, which turn out to be crucial to the fracturing of the ice, were visualized using a shadowgraph method and also measured using pressure transduces. Unique bubble behaviour was observed, including bubble coalescence, bubble splitting, inclined counter-jets and asymmetric toroidal bubble collapse. Bubble dynamic properties, such as jet speed, jet energy and bubble centre displacement, were measured. Shock wave emission and ice breaking capability of the two bubbles were investigated over a range of inter-bubble and bubble–boundary distances. Regions where the damaging potential of the bubble pair are strengthened or weakened were summarized and possible reasons for the variation in the ice breaking capability were analysed based on bubble morphology, jet characteristics and shock wave pressure. The findings may contribute to more efficient ice breaking and also inspire new ways to manipulate cavitation bubble damage.
The oxidation behavior of the selective laser melting (SLM)–fabricated Inconel 718 was investigated through isothermal oxidation testing at 650 °C for 500 h and compared with that of the as-cast and as-forged specimens at the same testing conditions. The effect of microstructure and surface roughness on the oxidation behavior of the SLM-fabricated, as-cast, and as-forged Inconel 718 specimens was examined. The result shows that Inconel 718 fabricated by SLM with the unique layer structure exhibited a better resistance to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C compared with as-cast and as-forged 718 with coarse dendritic structure and uniform equiaxed grain microstructure, respectively. The influence of the surface roughness on the long-time oxidation resistance of SLM specimens is not pronounced compared with that of as-cast and as-forged specimens. The tiny dendrites instead of grain boundaries are a major influencing factor for the oxidation process of SLM specimens. The surface roughness has more evident influence on the oxidation resistance of as-forged specimens than that of the as-cast ones subjected to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
The High-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed as a novel methodology based on the arbitrary degree spherical rule, which can achieve better performance than the traditional Kalman filter. However, it also has a large calculation burden when used in a high-dimension and high-degree of accuracy estimation system. The number of sampling points of an HCKF increases polynomially with increasing state-space dimensions, which further increases the calculation burden. The reduction of the number of the state-space dimensions is the main contribution of this study. A strategy for HCKF based on the partitioning of the state-space and orthogonal principle is introduced, referred to as the Multiple Robust HCKF (MRHCKF). It is shown that this technique can effectively reduce the calculation burden for the high-dimension system with robust performance. Numerical simulations are performed for the example of high-dimension relative position and attitude estimation to show that the proposed method can obtain nearly the same performance as the HCKF, while drastically reducing computational complexity.
Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
Non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) play an important role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel NRBC based on the method of characteristics using timeline interpolations is proposed for fluid dynamics solved by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). It is performed by four layers of particles whose pressures and velocities are obtained through the Lagrange interpolation in the time domain which is derived from the propagation of characteristic waves between particles. The proposed NRBC can allow outward travelling pressure and velocity messages to pass through the boundary without obvious reflection. That is, with the implementation of the NRBC, the solution in a finite computational domain of interest is close to that in an infinite domain. Several numerical tests show that this NRBC is robust and applicable for a broad variety of hydrodynamics ranging from low to high speed.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
This work focuses on using the power of a collapsing bubble in ice breaking. We experimentally validated the possibility and investigated the mechanism of ice breaking with a single collapsing bubble, where the bubble was generated by underwater electric discharge and collapsed at various distances under ice plates with different thicknesses. Characteristics of the ice fracturing, bubble jets and shock waves emitted during the collapse of the bubble were captured. The pattern of the ice fracturing is related to the ice thickness and the bubble–ice distance. Fractures develop from the top of the ice plate, i.e. the ice–air interface, and this is attributed to the tension caused by the reflection of the shock waves at the interface. Such fracturing is lessened when the thickness of the ice plate or the bubble–ice distance increases. Fractures may also form from the bottom of the ice plate upon the shock wave incidence when the bubble–ice distance is sufficiently small. The ice plate motion and its effect on the bubble behaviour were analysed. The ice plate motion results in higher jet speed and greater elongation of the bubble shape along the vertical direction. It also causes the bubble initiated close to the ice plate to split and emit multiple shock waves at the end of the collapse. The findings suggest that collapsing bubbles can be used as a brand new way of ice breaking.
Interleukin (IL)-13-associated signal pathway plays an important role in schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis. In this study we tried to investigate the effects of corilagin to ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis through regulating IL-13-associated signal pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cellular model was set up with hepatic stellate cells-T6 cells stimulated by rIL-13 and male Balb/c mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariaeas as animal model. Liver histological changes were observed with haematoxylin and eosin staining. Masson staining was employed to observe the change of egg granulomas. Expression of Col (collagen) and Col III were examined with Immunohistochemistry. Western bolt was employed to detect the JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 proteins. The mRNA expression of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As a result, less inflammatory changes were found in all corilagin groups compared with model group and praziquantel group. The mRNA levels of Col I, Col III, IL-13, JAK-1 and IL13Rα1 were significantly decreased after corilagin intervention (P < 0·01). JAK-1 and IL-13Rα1 protein levels were also greatly decreased in the corilagin groups (P < 0·01). In conclusion, corilagin could ameliorate schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis by down-regulating the expression of IL-13 and signal molecules in IL-13 pathway.