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In this chapter we explore the moral interactional work that preschool teachers and children accomplish in everyday preschool practices. We explore how teachers solicit accounts in assisting the children to remedy a problematic conduct of excluding a child from play. It will be shown how the children justify their actions to avoid being blamed for faulty conduct. In their response the preschool teachers use hypothetical scenarios to avoid blaming and instead modeling the children’s actions and feelings to experience the hurt feeling by a peer. The study shows how an EMCA approach can provide insights into how childhood educators socialize children into accountability and compassion while maintaining a democratic ethos.
Welfare states in Europe and around the world are experiencing growing numbers of people with limited or unclear rights to public welfare within their borders. These are refugees, undocumented migrants, EU-migrants and other groups of displaced or deprived people seeking a better life. In Sweden, this situation is trying the highly held principles of social and human rights, as charities are becoming an increasingly important complement to rights-based public welfare services. This article will show how eight different City Missions in Sweden are seeing a new role for themselves in an emerging social landscape. The findings will be analysed in terms of social and human rights, using the classic theories of T. H. Marshall as well as more recent research.
Physical training, if including specific different training modalities, reduces the fall risk in healthy community-dwelling older people, as does a home hazards modification programme. Vitamin D supplementation in older individuals with low levels of vitamin D, adjustment of psychotropic medication, and structured modification of multi-pharmacy are all drug-focused programmes that reduce the number of falls. Anti-slip shoe devices during icy conditions for older people who walk outdoors and multifaceted podiatry in patients with specific foot disability reduce the fall risk. First eye cataract surgery and pacemakers in patients with cardio-inhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity are surgical interventions that reduce the fall risk. Multi-factorial preventive programmes that include training, both individually designed and generally prescribed, also reduce the fall frequency. With this in mind, we ought to initiate fall preventive programmes in older people, especially in high- risk groups, to reduce the number of falls and fallers in society.
The twin interface structure in twinning superlattice InP nanowires with zincblende structure has been investigated using electron exit wavefunction restoration from focal series images recorded on an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. By comparing the exit wavefunction phase with simulations from model structures, it was possible to determine the twin structure to be the ortho type with preserved In-P bonding order across the interface. The bending of the thin nanowires away from the intended ⟨110⟩ axis could be estimated locally from the calculated diffraction pattern, and this parameter was successfully taken into account in the simulations.
We describe the production of hierarchical branched nanowire structures by the sequential seeding of multiple wire generations with metal nanoparticles. Such complex structures represent the next step in the study of functional nanowires, as they increase the potential functionality of nanostructures produced in a self-assembled way. It is possible, for example, to fabricate a variety of active heterostructure segments with different compositions and diameters within a single connected structure. The focus of this work is on epitaxial III-V semiconductor branched nanowire structures, with the two materials GaP and In As used as typical examples of branched structures with cubic (zinc blende) and hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structures. The general morphology of these structures will be described, as well as the relationship between morphology and crystal structure.
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