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Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Corrosion of ferritic steels, including oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) variants, in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such as beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li2BeF4) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 °C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used for the initial in situ study of an ODS ferritic steel in high-temperature molten fluoride salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra obtained at its open circuit corrosion potential (OCP) interpreted in terms of the basic components of the equivalent circuit, which include the electrolyte conductivity, the interfacial charge transfer resistance, and the interfacial capacitance. Such in situ measurement techniques may provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.
Starting from two equilibrium solid solutions in the Au-Ni system, we analyze the change in composition due to a 400 eV/Å fast ion track simulated by molecular dynamics in the Embedded Atom approximation. We aim at determining the influence of the thermodynamic forces derived from the large thermal gradients and the rapid solidification across the solidus and liquidus on the motion of solute atoms. One dimensional gradients as well as analytic models are used to quantitatively determine the domains of influence of these forces. Evidence shows that the liquidus and solidus equilibrium solidification predicted by the phase diagram is not reached during the track. The solute concentration is mainly determined by the combined diffusion and thermomigration mechanisms in the liquid stage.
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