To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
CHD care is resource-intensive. Unwarranted variation in care may increase cost and result in poorer health outcomes. We hypothesise that process variation exists within the pre-operative evaluation and planning process for children undergoing repair of atrial septal defect or ventricular septal defect and that substantial variation occurs in a small number of care points.
From interviews with staff of an integrated congenital heart centre, an initial process map was constructed. A retrospective chart review of patients with isolated surgical atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect repair from 7/1/2018 through 11/1/2020 informed revisions of the process map. The map was assessed for points of consistency and variability.
Thirty-two surgical atrial septal defect/ventricular septal defect repair patients were identified. Ten (31%) were reviewed by interventional cardiology before surgical review. Of these, 6(60%) had a failed catheter-based closure and 4 (40%) were deemed inappropriate for catheter-based closure. Thirty (94%) were reviewed in case conference, all attended surgical clinic, and none were admitted prior to surgery. The process map from interviews alone identified surgery rescheduling as a point of major variability; however, chart review revealed this was not as prominent a source of variability as pre-operative interventional cardiology review.
Significant variation in the pre-operative evaluation and planning process for surgical atrial septal defect/ventricular septal defect patients was identified. If such process variation is widespread through CHD care, it may contribute to variations in outcome and cost previously documented within CHD surgery. Future research will focus on determining whether the variation is warranted or unwarranted, associated health outcomes and cost variation attributed to these variations in care processes.
A four site-year study was conducted in North Carolina to evaluate the effects of soybean planting timing and row spacing on soil moisture, weed density, soybean lodging, and yield in a cover crop-based no-till organic soybean production system. Soybean planting timing included roll-kill/planting and roll-kill/delayed planting where soybean planting occurred either on the same day or approximately 2 wk later, respectively. Soybean row spacing included 19, 38, and 76 cm, and all treatments included a weedy check and weed-free treatment. Rye biomass production averaged above 10,000 kg ha−1 dry matter, which resulted in good weed control across all sites. Despite having good weed control throughout all treatments, weed coverage was highest in the 76-cm row-space treatment when compared to both the 19-cm and 38-cm row spacing in two of the four site-years. Soybean lodging is a potential consequence of no-till planting of soybeans in high residue mulches, and of the three row spacings, the 19-cm spacing exhibited the greatest incidence of lodging. Row spacing also influenced soybean yield; the 19- and 38-cm row spacing out yielded the 76-cm spacing by 10%. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was higher in the cereal rye mulch treatments compared to the no rye checks. Furthermore, delaying soybean planting lowered soil water evaporation. However, the increased soil VWC in the rolled-rye treatment did not translate into increased soybean yield. The rolled-rye treatment exhibited significant (P < 0.01) increases in soil VWC when compared to the no-rye treatment at three of the four site-years. These results highlight planting date flexibility and potential risk to lodging that producers face when no-till planting organic soybeans.
Cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production has attracted attention from farmers, researchers, and other agricultural professionals because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic production. This system is based on the use of cereal rye cover crops that are mechanically terminated with a roller-crimper to create in situ mulch that suppresses weeds and promotes soybean growth. In this paper, we report experiments that were conducted over the past decade in the eastern region of the United States on cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production, and we outline current management strategies and future research needs. Our research has focused on maximizing cereal rye spring ground cover and biomass because of the crucial role this cover crop plays in weed suppression. Soil fertility and cereal rye sowing and termination timing affect biomass production, and these factors can be manipulated to achieve levels greater than 8,000 kg ha−1, a threshold identified for consistent suppression of annual weeds. Manipulating cereal rye seeding rate and seeding method also influences ground cover and weed suppression. In general, weed suppression is species-specific, with early emerging summer annual weeds (e.g., common ragweed), high weed seed bank densities (e.g. > 10,000 seeds m−2), and perennial weeds (e.g., yellow nutsedge) posing the greatest challenges. Due to the challenges with maximizing cereal rye weed suppression potential, we have also found high-residue cultivation to significantly improve weed control. In addition to cover crop and weed management, we have made progress with planting equipment and planting density for establishing soybean into a thick cover crop residue. Our current and future research will focus on integrated multitactic weed management, cultivar selection, insect pest suppression, and nitrogen management as part of a systems approach to advancing this new production system.
CGA-362622 has been registered for postemergence (POST) over-the-top or POST-directed application in cotton. Research was conducted during 1998 in Texas to determine potential cotton phytotoxicity after POST application of CGA-362622 alone and with the insecticides acephate, dicrotophos, azinphos methyl, oxamyl, thiamethoxam, dimethoate, and malathion and to determine the response of four cotton cultivars to CGA-362622 applied alone. CGA-362622 applied with malathion injured cotton more than either pesticide applied alone, and yield was reduced in one of four locations when the pesticides were applied in mixture compared with nontreated cotton. Pyrithiobac or CGA-362622 mixed with malathion injured cotton similarly. The other insecticides tank mixed with CGA-362622 generally did not adversely affect cotton. The cotton cultivars ‘Delta and Pine Land 50’, ‘Paymaster 1220’, ‘Paymaster 1220RR’, and ‘Stoneville 474’ responded similarly to CGA-362622 applied alone or with insecticides.
Cover crop mulches have been successful in reducing weed severity in organic soybeans. This study examined six rye cultivars (SRCs) used as cover crops to determine which were most adapted for use with a roller–crimper in the southeastern U.S. To be an effective mulch, a rye cultivar must produce high biomass and reach reproductive growth stage to facilitate mechanical termination via the roller–crimper prior to soybean planting. Rye cultivars were planted at three locations in North Carolina over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. Each rye cultivar was mechanically terminated via a roller–crimper implement. Rye cover crops were terminated on two dates and soybeans were immediately no-till planted into the mulch. In 2009, all rye cultivars produced greater than 9000 kg ha−1 rye biomass dry matter (DM) with the exception of Rymin at Plymouth (2009), but in 2010 only the early flowering cultivars produced in excess of 9000 kg ha−1 DM. There were no detectable soybean yield differences between the SRCs and the weed-free checks, and weed control was excellent across all SRCs at both Plymouth and Salisbury (2009). After an unseasonably cold and wet winter in 2010, the late flowering rye cultivars were not fully controlled by the early termination date due to delayed maturation (less than 65% control at 2 WAP) whereas the early flowering cultivars were fully controlled (100% control at 2 WAP). Rye biomass production was below 9000 kg ha−1 DM for the late flowering and dough development rye cultivars. The early-terminated rye plots had greater weed coverage across all SRCs than those from the late termination date (P < 0.01). However, weeds did not impact soybean yield for either of the termination dates. Soybean yield in 2010 was modeled with rye biomass and soybean population used as covariates, and for both termination dates, soybean yield was proportional to rye biomass production. Early flowering rye cultivars offer producers the widest range of termination opportunities that best coincide with their cash crop planting dates.
Prior research on whether marriage is equally beneficial to the mental health of men and women is inconsistent due to methodological variation. This study addresses some prior methodological limitations and investigates gender differences in the association of first marriage and being previously married, with subsequent first onset of a range of mental disorders.
Cross-sectional household surveys in 15 countries from the WHO World Mental Health survey initiative (n=34493), with structured diagnostic assessment of mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Discrete-time survival analyses assessed the interaction of gender and marital status in the association with first onset of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
Marriage (versus never married) was associated with reduced risk of first onset of most mental disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders this reduced risk was stronger among women, and for depression and panic disorder it was confined to men. Being previously married (versus stably married) was associated with increased risk of all disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders, this increased risk was stronger among women and for depression it was stronger among men.
Marriage was associated with reduced risk of the first onset of most mental disorders in both men and women but there were gender differences in the associations between marital status and onset of depressive and substance use disorders. These differences may be related to gender differences in the experience of multiple role demands within marriage, especially those concerning parenting.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.