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The aim of this randomized clinical trial follow-up at three months was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention with a focus on diet and physical activity (PA) to change the amount of PA, body mass index (BMI) and the waist circumference (WC) in patients with severe mental illness.
We recruited 332 outpatients with severe mental disorders undergoing treatment with antipsychotic medication from Mental Healthcare Centers of Barcelona. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The patients in the intervention group participated in a group PA and diet educational program. The blinded measurements at 0 and 3 months were: the level of PA (IPAQ questionnaire), BMI, WC, blood pressure, dietary habits (PREDIMED questionnaire), quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire) and laboratory parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose).
The average age was 46.7 years and 55% were males. Schizophrenia had been diagnosed in 67.1% of them. At 3 months, the average weekly walking METs rose significantly in the IG 266.05 METs (95%CI: 16.86 to 515.25; P = 0.036). The total MET average also rose although not significantly: 191.38 METs (95%CI: 1.38 to 381.38; P = 0.086). However, the BMI decreased significantly more in the CG, by 0.26 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.02 to 0.51; P = 0.038), than in the IG. There were no significant differences in the WC.
The short-term results suggest that the intervention increases the level of PA, but does not improve physical or laboratory parameters.
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01729650 (effectiveness of a physical activity and diet program in patients with psychotic disorder [CAPiCOR]).
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