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This paper presents a compilation of atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2019, derived from atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree rings from clean-air sites. Following the approach taken by Hua et al. (2013), our revised and extended compilation consists of zonal, hemispheric and global radiocarbon (14C) data sets, with monthly data sets for 5 zones (Northern Hemisphere zones 1, 2, and 3, and Southern Hemisphere zones 3 and 1–2). Our new compilation includes smooth curves for zonal data sets that are more suitable for dating applications than the previous approach based on simple averaging. Our new radiocarbon dataset is intended to help facilitate the use of atmospheric bomb 14C in carbon cycle studies and to accommodate increasing demand for accurate dating of recent (post-1950) terrestrial samples.
Many mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are associated with poor dietary quality and nutrient intake. There is, however, a deficit of research looking at the relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality.
This study aims to explore the relationship between OCD severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality.
A post hoc regression analysis was conducted with data combined from two separate clinical trials that included 85 adults with diagnosed OCD, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies version 3.2, and dietary quality was scored with the Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults – 2013.
Nutrient intake in the sample largely aligned with Australian dietary guidelines. Linear regression models adjusted for gender, age and total energy intake showed no significant associations between OCD severity, nutrient intake and dietary quality (all P > 0.05). However, OCD severity was inversely associated with caffeine (β = −15.50, 95% CI −28.88 to −2.11, P = 0.024) and magnesium (β = −6.63, 95% CI −12.72 to −0.53, P = 0.034) intake after adjusting for OCD treatment resistance.
This study showed OCD severity had little effect on nutrient intake and dietary quality. Dietary quality scores were higher than prior studies with healthy samples, but limitations must be noted regarding comparability. Future studies employing larger sample sizes, control groups and more accurate dietary intake measures will further elucidate the relationship between nutrient intake and dietary quality in patients with OCD.
In the US, as many as 20% of recruits sustain stress fractures during basic training. In addition, approximately one-third of female recruits develop iron deficiency upon completion of training. Iron is a cofactor in bone collagen formation and vitamin D activation, thus we hypothesized iron deficiency may be contributing to altered bone microarchitecture and mechanics during 12-weeks of increased mechanical loading. Three-week old female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: iron adequate sedentary, iron deficient sedentary, iron adequate exercise, and iron deficient exercise. Exercise consisted of high-intensity treadmill running (54 min 3×/week). After 12-weeks, serum bone turnover markers, femoral geometry and microarchitecture, mechanical properties and fracture toughness, and tibiae mineral composition and morphometry were measured. Iron deficiency increased the bone resorption markers C-terminal telopeptide type I collagen and tartate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP 5b). In exercised rats, iron deficiency further increased bone TRAcP 5b, while in iron adequate rats, exercise increased the bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide. In the femur, exercise increased cortical thickness and maximum load. In the tibia, iron deficiency increased the rate of bone formation, mineral apposition, and zinc content. These data show that the femur and tibia structure and mechanical properties are not negatively impacted by iron deficiency despite a decrease in tibiae iron content and increase in serum bone resorption markers during 12-weeks of high-intensity running in young growing female rats.
To estimate prior severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among skilled nursing facility (SNF) staff in the state of Georgia and to identify risk factors for seropositivity as of fall 2020.
Baseline survey and seroprevalence of the ongoing longitudinal Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Prevention in Nursing Homes study.
The study included 14 SNFs in the state of Georgia.
In total, 792 SNF staff employed or contracted with participating SNFs were included in this study. The analysis included 749 participants with SARS-CoV-2 serostatus results who provided age, sex, and complete survey information.
We estimated unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for potential risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 serostatus. We estimated adjusted ORs using a logistic regression model including age, sex, community case rate, SNF resident infection rate, working at other facilities, and job role.
Staff working in high-infection SNFs were twice as likely (unadjusted OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.45–3.00) to be seropositive as those in low-infection SNFs. Certified nursing assistants and nurses were 3 times more likely to be seropositive than administrative, pharmacy, or nonresident care staff: unadjusted OR, 2.93 (95% CI, 1.58–5.78) and unadjusted OR, 3.08 (95% CI, 1.66–6.07). Logistic regression yielded similar adjusted ORs.
Working at high-infection SNFs was a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Even after accounting for resident infections, certified nursing assistants and nurses had a 3-fold higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity than nonclinical staff. This knowledge can guide prioritized implementation of safer ways for caregivers to provide necessary care to SNF residents.
The original critique of human rights is well known. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, scholars drew attention to various blind spots in the human rights project. Feminists demonstrated its failure in representing and protecting women, just as parallel limitations were targeted by queer and disabled activists, finding powerful institutional battlegrounds in the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations. TWAIL and post-colonial scholars critiqued the colonial imagery of ‘victims, savages and saviors’ that underpinned the movement, and many critiques intersected multiple communities.
We analyzed the efficacy, cost, and cost-effectiveness of predictive decision-support systems based on surveillance interventions to reduce the spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).
We developed a computational model that included patient movement between acute-care hospitals (ACHs), long-term care facilities (LTCFs), and communities to simulate the transmission and epidemiology of CRE. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted on several surveillance strategies to detect asymptomatic CRE colonization, which included screening in ICUs at select or all hospitals, a statewide registry, or a combination of hospital screening and a statewide registry.
We investigated 51 ACHs, 222 LTCFs, and skilled nursing facilities, and 464 ZIP codes in the state of Maryland.
Patients or participants:
The model was informed using 2013–2016 patient-mix data from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission. This model included all patients that were admitted to an ACH.
On average, the implementation of a statewide CRE registry reduced annual CRE infections by 6.3% (18.8 cases). Policies of screening in select or all ICUs without a statewide registry had no significant impact on the incidence of CRE infections. Predictive algorithms, which identified any high-risk patient, reduced colonization incidence by an average of 1.2% (3.7 cases) without a registry and 7.0% (20.9 cases) with a registry. Implementation of the registry was estimated to save $572,000 statewide in averted infections per year.
Although hospital-level surveillance provided minimal reductions in CRE infections, regional coordination with a statewide registry of CRE patients reduced infections and was cost-effective.
To identify novel associations between modifiable physical and health variables, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, and cognitive function in a cohort of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).
Metrics of cardiometabolic risk, stress, inflammation, neurotrophic/growth factors, AD, and cognition were assessed in 154 MCI participants (Mean age = 74.1 years) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Partial Least Squares analysis was employed to examine associations among these physiological variables and cognition.
Latent variable 1 revealed a unique combination of AD biomarkers, neurotrophic/growth factors, education, and stress that were significantly associated with specific domains of cognitive function, including episodic memory, executive function, processing speed, and language, representing 45.2% of the cross-block covariance in the data. Age, body mass index, and metrics tapping basic attention or premorbid IQ were not significant.
Our data-driven analysis highlights the significant relationships between metrics associated with AD pathology, neuroprotection, and neuroplasticity, primarily with tasks tapping episodic memory, executive function, processing speed, and verbal fluency rather than more basic tasks that do not require mental manipulation (basic attention and vocabulary). These data also indicate that biological metrics are more strongly associated with episodic memory, executive function, and processing speed than chronological age in older adults with MCI.
Recent well-powered genome-wide association studies have enhanced prediction of substance use outcomes via polygenic scores (PGSs). Here, we test (1) whether these scores contribute to prediction over-and-above family history, (2) the extent to which PGS prediction reflects inherited genetic variation v. demography (population stratification and assortative mating) and indirect genetic effects of parents (genetic nurture), and (3) whether PGS prediction is mediated by behavioral disinhibition prior to substance use onset.
PGSs for alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use/use disorder were calculated for Minnesota Twin Family Study participants (N = 2483, 1565 monozygotic/918 dizygotic). Twins' parents were assessed for histories of substance use disorder. Twins were assessed for behavioral disinhibition at age 11 and substance use from ages 14 to 24. PGS prediction of substance use was examined using linear mixed-effects, within-twin pair, and structural equation models.
Nearly all PGS measures were associated with multiple types of substance use independently of family history. However, most within-pair PGS prediction estimates were substantially smaller than the corresponding between-pair estimates, suggesting that prediction is driven in part by demography and indirect genetic effects of parents. Path analyses indicated the effects of both PGSs and family history on substance use were mediated via disinhibition in preadolescence.
PGSs capturing risk of substance use and use disorder can be combined with family history measures to augment prediction of substance use outcomes. Results highlight indirect sources of genetic associations and preadolescent elevations in behavioral disinhibition as two routes through which these scores may relate to substance use.
In an effort to elucidate new factors that may contribute to developmental psychopathology, the current study examined whether accelerated epigenetic aging at birth related to children's differential susceptibility to the effects of aversive parenting on early emerging mental health risk. Using data from a multiethnic birth cohort, the interaction between Horvath's methylation age in umbilical cord blood and hostile parenting behaviors was examined in relation to perceptions of infant's temperament at 6 months and to children's psychological symptoms at 3 years in 154 families. Results broadly revealed that children with higher levels of accelerated methylation aging evinced more unpredictable temperaments and more psychological symptoms if their mothers reported more hostile parenting, but showed fewer difficulties if mothers engaged in less hostile parenting; children with lower levels of accelerated methylation age did not show associations between hostility and temperament or psychological symptoms. Effects were not accounted for by gestational age at birth, demographic factors, or the distribution of cell subtypes. These findings suggest that accelerated epigenetic age may function as a form of differential susceptibility, signaling increased risk for psychopathology in more aversive contexts but decreased risk in less aversive early environments. Taken together, they point to a novel biological process to consider within risk for psychopathology.
Drought stress and weed competition are two of the most important threats to corn production in the northeastern United States. Both pressures have the potential to worsen under climate change. In a 2-yr field study in Ithaca, NY, we tested the effects of drought and burcucumber, an increasingly problematic annual vine, on silage corn. Burcucumber seedlings were transplanted into corn rows at densities of 0, 0.5, 2, and 3 plants m−2 and a drought treatment was later imposed with rainout shelters constructed from steel frames and high-clarity plastic. Available soil moisture was lower in drought plots (47% ± 1% in 2018 and 52% ± 2% in 2019) than no-drought plots (69% ± 1% in 2018 and 68% ± 1% in 2019). Burcucumber planting density (P = 0.008) reduced fresh silage yield. Drought also reduced fresh silage yield (P < 0.001) with a drought-by-year interaction (P = 0.007): drought reduced fresh weight by 29% in 2018 (48,000 ± 2,000 kg ha−1 to 34,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1) and by 9% in 2019 (38,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1 to 34,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1). Burcucumber planting density and drought did not interact. Overall, our findings indicate that drought and competition from burcucumber may have additive effects on silage corn in New York State. Regardless of water availability, active weed management is required to prevent yield losses due to burcucumber. Yield losses may be similar or greater in grain corn and might increase under climate change.
Dithiopyr and dinitroanilines are preemergence-applied, mitotic-inhibiting herbicides used to control goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] in turfgrass. A suspected resistant E. indica population was collected from a golf course putting green and was evaluated for possible resistance to dithiopyr and prodiamine. After dose–response evaluation, the α-tubulin gene was sequenced for known target-site mutations that have been reported to confer resistance to mitotic-inhibiting herbicides. A mutation was discovered that resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 136 from leucine to phenylalanine (Leu-136-Phe). Previous research has indicated that Leu-136-Phe does confer resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides. The level of resistance indicated by regression models and I50 values indicates that there is 54.1-, 4.7-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on seedling emergence response and 88.4-, 7.8-, >100-, and >100-fold resistance to dithiopyr, prodiamine, pendimethalin, and oryzalin, respectively, when compared with the susceptible population based on biomass reduction response. This is the first report of less resistance to prodiamine compared with pendimethalin or oryzalin due to a target-site α-tubulin mutation and the first report of a target-site α-tubulin mutation associated with dithiopyr resistance.
Women carrying a fetus diagnosed with congenital heart disease often experience significant distress because of their medical diagnosis. Given the well-documented impact associated with elevated prenatal stress and critical importance of developing targeted interventions, this study aims to examine stressors, coping and resilience resources, and mental health treatment preferences in pregnant women receiving a congenital heart disease diagnosis to inform the development of a psychological intervention to reduce maternal distress prenatally.
Three groups of participants were included consisting of two pregnant women carrying a fetus with congenital heart disease, five women of children (4−16 months) with congenital heart disease, and five paediatric cardiology medical providers. Responses were gathered via semi-structured interviews and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.
Information regarding four broad areas were analysed of emotional distress during pregnancy; experience of initial diagnosis; coping and resilience; and perspectives on a mental health intervention in pregnancy. Anxiety regarding baby’s future, guilt following diagnosis, and various coping strategies emerged as primary themes among the participant sample. Medical staff corroborated mothers’ heightened anxiety and viewed a psychotherapeutic intervention during the prenatal period as essential and complimentary to standard of care.
We identified salient themes and preferred components for a future psychological intervention delivered prenatally.
Patients’ and providers’ perspectives regarding the nature of maternal distress, resilience and treatment preferences can inform the development of interventions to support the emotional well-being of pregnant women carrying a fetus with congenital heart disease to optimise care and potentially improve outcomes for fetal brain development.
Excited delirium, which has been defined as combativeness, agitation, and altered sensorium, requires immediate treatment in prehospital or emergency department (ED) settings for the safety of both patients and caregivers. Prehospital ketamine use is prevalent, although the evidence on safety and efficacy is limited. Many patients with excited delirium are intoxicated with illicit substances. This investigation explores whether patients treated with prehospital ketamine for excited delirium with concomitant substance intoxication have higher rates of subsequent intubation in the ED compared to those without confirmed substance usage.
Over 28 months at two large community hospitals, all medical records were retrospectively searched for all patients age 18 years or greater with prehospital ketamine intramuscular (IM) administration for excited delirium and identified illicit and prescription substance co-ingestions. Trained abstractors collected demographic characteristics, history of present illness (HPI), urine drug screens (UDS), alcohol levels, and noted additional sedative administrations. Substance intoxication was determined by UDS and alcohol positivity or negativity, as well as physician HPI. Patients without toxicological testing or documentation of substance intoxication, or who may have tested positive due to ED sedation, were excluded from relevant analyses. Subsequent ED intubation was the primary pre-specified outcome. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare variables.
Among 86 patients given prehospital ketamine IM for excited delirium, baseline characteristics including age, ketamine dose, and body mass index were similar between those who did or did not undergo intubation. Men had higher intubation rates. Patients testing positive for alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ecstasy, marijuana, opiates, and synthetic cathinones, both bath salts and flakka, had similar rates of intubation compared to those negative for these substances. Of 27 patients with excited delirium and concomitant cocaine intoxication, nine (33%) were intubated compared with four of 50 (8%) without cocaine intoxication, yielding a 5.75 OR (95%, CI 1.57 to 21.05; P = .009).
Patients treated with ketamine IM for excited delirium with concomitant cocaine intoxication had a statistically significant 5.75-fold increased rate of subsequent intubation in the ED. Amongst other substances, no other trends with intubation were noted, but further study is warranted.
BASF Corporation has developed P-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor-resistant cotton and soybean that will allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, a multi-state research project was conducted non-crop to examine weed control following isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone and with a number of tank mix partners at high and low labeled rates. At 28 DAT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥95% at 6 of 7 locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron or fluridone. These same combinations provided the greatest control 42 DAT at 4 of 7 locations. Where large crabgrass was present, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron, fluridone, pendimethalin, or S-metolachlor or isoxaflutole plus the low rate of fluometuron controlled large crabgrass ≥95% in 2 of 3 locations 28 DAT. In 2 of 3 locations, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor improved large crabgrass control 42 DAT when compared to isoxaflutole alone. At 21 DAT, morningglory was controlled ≥95% at all locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron and at 3 of 4 locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron. At 42 DAT at all locations, isoxaflutole plus diuron or fluridone and isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron improved morningglory control compared to isoxaflutole alone. These results suggest that isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone or in tank mixture is efficacious on a number of cross-spectrum annual weeds in cotton and extended weed control may be achieved when isoxaflutole is tank mixed with a number of soil residual herbicides.
The discovery of wake bistability has generated an upsurge in experimental investigations into the wakes of simplified vehicle geometries. Particular focus has centred on the probabilistic switching between two asymmetrical bistable wake states of a square-back Ahmed body; however, the majority of this research has been undertaken in wind tunnels with turbulence intensities of less than $1\,\%$, considerably lower than typical atmospheric levels. To better simulate bistability under on-road conditions, in which turbulence intensities can easily reach levels of $10\,\%$ or more, this experimental study investigates the effects of free-stream turbulence on the bistability characteristics of the square-back Ahmed body. Through passive generation and quantification of the free-stream turbulent conditions, a monotonic correlation was found between the switching rate and free-stream turbulence intensity.
Evidence supporting collection of follow-up blood cultures for Gram-negative bacteremia is mixed. We sought to understand why providers order follow-up blood cultures when managing P. aeruginosa bacteremia and whether follow-up blood cultures in this context are associated with short- and long-term survival.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia at the University of Maryland Medical Center in 2015–2020. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression with time-varying covariates were used to evaluate the association between follow-up blood cultures and time to mortality within 30 days of first positive blood culture. Provider justifications for follow-up blood cultures were identified through chart review.
Of 159 eligible patients, 127 (80%) had follow-up blood cultures, including 9 (7%) that were positive for P. aeruginosa and 10 (8%) that were positive for other organisms. Follow-up blood cultures were typically collected “to ensure clearance” or “to guide antibiotic therapy.” Overall, 30-day mortality was 25.2%. After risk adjustment for patient characteristics, follow-up blood cultures were associated with a nonsignificant reduction in mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.08; P = .071). In exploratory analyses, the potential mortality reduction from follow-up blood cultures was driven by their use in patients with Pitt bacteremia scores >0.
Follow-up blood cultures are commonly collected for P. aeruginosa bacteremia but infrequently identify persistent bacteremia. Targeted use of follow-up blood cultures based on severity of illness may reduce unnecessary culturing.
Our objective was to quantify the cross-sectional associations between dietary fatty acid (DFA) patterns and cognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adults. This study included data from 8,942 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study (weighted age 56.2 y and proportion female 55.2%). The NCI (National Cancer Institute) method was used to estimate dietary intake from two 24-hr recalls. We derived DFA patterns using principal components analysis with 26 fatty acid and total plant and animal monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) input variables. Global cognitive function was calculated as the average z-score of 4 neurocognitive tests. Survey linear regression models included multiple potential confounders such as age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, physical activity, energy intake, and cardiovascular disease. DFA patterns were characterized by consumption of long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), animal-based MUFA, and trans fatty acids (Factor 1); short to medium-chain SFA (Factor 2); very-long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (Factor 3); very-long-chain SFA and plant-based MUFA and PUFA (Factor 4). Factor 2 was associated with greater scores for global cognitive function (β=0.037 ± 0.012) and the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) (β=0.56±0.17), Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning-Sum (B-SEVLT) (β=0.23 ± 0.11), and B-SEVLT-Recall (β=0.11 ± 0.05) tests (P<0.05 for all). Factors 1 (β=0.04 ± 0.01) and 4 (β=0.70 ± 0.18) were associated with the DSS test (P<0.05 for all). Consumption of short to medium-chain SFA may be associated with higher cognitive function among U.S.-residing Hispanic/Latino adults. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Of 100 patients discharged from short-stay units (SSUs) with antibiotics, 47 had a skin and soft-tissue infection, 22 had pneumonia, and 21 had a urinary tract infection. Among all discharge antibiotic prescriptions, 78% involved antibiotic overuse, most commonly excess duration (54 of 100) and guideline discordant selection (44 of 100).