To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues around the world, understanding the transmission characteristics of COVID-19 is vital for prevention and control. We conducted the first study aiming to estimate and compare the relative risk of secondary attack rates (SARs) of COVID-19 in different contact environments. Until 26 July 2021, epidemiological studies and cluster epidemic reports of COVID-19 were retrieved from SCI, Embase, PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM in English and Chinese, respectively. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated in pairwise comparisons of SARs between different contact environments using the frequentist NMA framework, and the ranking of risks in these environments was calculated using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Subgroup analysis was performed by regions. Thirty-two studies with 68 260 participants were identified. Compared with meal or gathering, transportation (RR 10.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–77.85), medical care (RR 11.68, 95% CI 1.58–86.61) and work or study places (RR 10.15, 95% CI 1.40–73.38) had lower risk ratios for SARs. Overall, the SUCRA rankings from the highest to the lowest were household (95.3%), meal or gathering (81.4%), public places (58.9%), daily conversation (50.1%), transportation (30.8%), medical care (18.2%) and work or study places (15.3%). Household SARs were significantly higher than other environments in the subgroup of mainland China and sensitive analysis without small sample studies (<100). In light of the risks, stratified personal protection and public health measures need to be in place accordingly, so as close contacts categorising and management.
As a new management reform adapting the development of the times, electronic human resource management (E-HRM) covers all possible integration mechanisms and contents between HRM and Information Technologies. E-HRM promotes employees' subject status with the network characteristics of openness and cooperation. Taking the theory of work adjustment as the instruction, this research studies the adaptive process induced by reconstructing the sense of matching when employees experience the reform, along with the influence of E-HRM on employee's initiative behavior from the perspective of job crafting. In total, 706 employees and their supervisors were investigated with matched questionnaire survey. The results show that: (1) E-HRM can stimulate employees' personal initiative behavior; (2) task crating, relational crafting and cognitive crafting as three dimensions of employees' job crafting, mediate the effect of E-HRM on personal initiative behavior and (3) the self-development motivation of employees' internet use plays a positive moderating role, steering self-oriented job crafting in the positive direction which conforms to the organizations' expectation.
Behavioural activation (BA) is an evidence-based treatment for depression that has been primarily delivered in individual out-patient treatment. Prior research supports a positive participant experience in individual therapy; however, less is known about the patient experience in group therapy, which is common in acute psychiatric settings.
The present study examined the patient experience of Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) delivered in group acute psychiatric treatment.
We used thematic analysis to extract themes from feedback surveys administered as part of quality improvement practice at a partial hospital program. Survey questions explored what patients learned, liked, disliked and thought could be improved in the BATD groups. Three individuals independently coded survey responses and collaboratively developed categories and themes.
Themes included several helpful content areas (e.g. value-driven activities, increasing motivation, goal setting, activity scheduling, cognitive behavioural model, self-monitoring) and learning methods (e.g. group format, experiential exercises, worksheets). Patients also identified unhelpful content (e.g. specific focus on depression and listing activities by mood). There was mixed feedback regarding the repetition of material and balance of lecture versus group participation.
Overall, these findings suggest a mostly positive patient experience of group-delivered BATD and support the acceptability of group-delivered BATD as a component of short-term intensive treatment.
This study was designed to investigate the value of history taking in identifying children with cardiac syncope, and to improve diagnostic efficiency and accuracy in children with cardiac syncope.
Methods and Results
We compared the characteristics of a group of children and adolescents with cardiac syncope at the Pediatric Syncope Unit of five hospitals in China with those with typical vasovagal syncope. We included a cohort of 275 patients in Pediatric Syncope Unit. A cardiac cause of syncope was established in 31 patients, autonomic-mediated reflex syncope in 214, non-syncopal attacks in 15, and in the remaining 15 the cause of syncope remained unexplained. Cardiac syncope was triggered by exercise, whereas vasovagal syncope by prolonged standing, warm-crowded place, and fear or pain emotion. Syncopal spells occurred at various positions in cardiac syncope. Children who had prodromal symptoms with cardiac syncope were significantly fewer than those with vasovagal syncope. Most children with cardiac syncope had history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings when compared with children suffering from vasovagal syncope. On multivariable analysis, history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings and exercise-triggered syncope were independent predictors of cardiac syncope.
Children and adolescents with a history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings and exercise-related syncope spells were at high risk for cardiac syncope.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.