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Approximately 50 % of Dutch community-dwelling older adults does not meet protein recommendations. This study assesses the effect of replacing low protein foods with protein-rich alternatives on the protein intake of Dutch community-dwelling older adults.
The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey—Older Adults 2010–2012 (DNFCS-OA) was used for scenario modelling. Dietary intake was estimated based on two 24-h recalls. Commonly consumed products were replaced by comparable products rich in protein (scenario 1), foods enriched in protein (scenario 2) and a combination of both (scenario 3). Replacement scenarios were confined to participants whose dietary protein intake was < 1·0 g/kg BW/d (n 391). Habitual protein intake of all older adults was estimated, adjusting for effects of within-person variation in the 2-d intake data.
Mean protein intake of the total population increased from 1·0 to 1·2 g/kg BW/d (scenarios 1 and 2) and to 1·3 g/kg BW/d (scenario 3). The percentage of participants with intakes of ≥ 1·0 g/kg BW/d increased from 47·1 % to 91·4 %, 90·2 % and 94·6 %, respectively, in scenarios 1, 2 and 3. The largest increases in protein intake were due to replacements in food groups: yoghurt, cream desserts and pudding, potatoes, vegetables and legumes and non-alcoholic beverages and milk in scenario 1 and bread; yoghurt, cream desserts and pudding and soups in scenario 2.
This simulation model shows that replacing low protein foods with comparable alternatives rich in protein can increase the protein intake of Dutch community-dwelling older adults considerably. Results can be used as a basis for nutritional counselling.
The present study aimed to conduct a process evaluation of a multicomponent nutritional telemonitoring intervention implemented among Dutch community-dwelling older adults.
A mixed-methods approach was employed, guided by the process evaluation framework of the Medical Research Council and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. The process indicators reach, dose, fidelity and acceptability were measured at several time points within the 6-month intervention among participants and/or nurses.
The intervention was implemented in the context of two care organisations in the Netherlands.
In total, ninety-seven participants (average age 78 years) participated in the intervention and eight nurses were involved in implementation.
About 80 % of participants completed the intervention. Dropouts were significantly older, had worse cognitive and physical functioning, and were more care-dependent. The intervention was largely implemented as intended and received well by participants (satisfaction score 4·1, scale 1–5), but less well by nurses (satisfaction score 3·5, scale 1–5). Participants adhered better to weight telemonitoring than to telemonitoring by means of questionnaires, for which half the participants needed help. Intention to use the intervention was predicted by performance expectancy (β=0·40; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·67) and social influence (β=0·17; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·34). No association between process indicators and intervention outcomes was found.
This process evaluation showed that nutritional telemonitoring among older adults is feasible and accepted by older adults, but nurses’ satisfaction should be improved. The study provided relevant insights for future development and implementation of eHealth interventions among older adults.
To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for intake.
MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to collect original studies that: (i) were published from 1990 to 2011; (ii) involved >100 subjects; (iii) had assessed dietary intake at the individual level; and/or (iv) included best practice biomarkers reflecting micronutrient status. We estimated relative differences in mean micronutrient intake and/or status between the lowest and highest socio-economic groups to: (i) evaluate variation in intake and status between socio-economic groups; and (ii) report on data availability.
Children, adults and elderly.
Data from eighteen publications originating primarily from Western Europe showed that there is a positive association between indicators of socio-economic status and micronutrient intake and/or status. The largest differences were observed for intake of vitamin C in eleven out of twelve studies (5–47 %) and for vitamin D in total of four studies (4–31 %).
The positive association observed between micronutrient intake and socio-economic status should complement existing evidence on socio-economic inequalities in diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe. These findings could provide clues for further research and have implications for public health policy aimed at improving the intake of micronutrients and diet-related diseases.
To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values.
Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature sources from CEE.
Micronutrients studied were folate, iodine, Fe, vitamin B12 and Zn (for intake and status) and Ca, Cu, Se, vitamin C and vitamin D (for intake). Intake data were based on validated dietary assessment methods; mean intakes were compared with average nutrient requirements set by the Nordic countries or the US Institute of Medicine. Nutritional status was assessed using the status biomarkers and cut-off levels recommended primarily by the WHO.
For all population groups in CEE, the mean intake and mean/median status levels were compared between countries and regions: CEE, Scandinavia, Western Europe and Mediterranean.
Mean micronutrient intakes of adults in the CEE region were in the same range as those from other European regions, with exception of Ca (lower in CEE). CEE children and adolescents had poorer iodine status, and intakes of Ca, folate and vitamin D were below the reference values.
CEE countries are lacking comparable studies on micronutrient intake/status across all age ranges, especially in children. Available evidence showed no differences in micronutrient intake/status in CEE populations in comparison with other European regions, except for Ca intake in adults and iodine and Fe status in children. The identified knowledge gaps urge further research on micronutrient intake/status of CEE populations to make a basis for evidence-based nutrition policy.
To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes.
A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, until January 2012, using a standardized strategy developed in the EURRECA network. Relevant articles were screened and sorted based on title and abstract, then based on full text, and finally included if they met inclusion criteria. A total of sixteen articles were included in the review.
Articles covered four continents: America (n 4), Europe (n 8), Africa (n 1) and Asia (n 3).
Population groups included healthy infants, children and adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women.
From the total number of 5815 papers retrieved from the initial search, only sixteen were eligible according to the inclusion criteria: five for infants, five for children and adolescents, and six for pregnant and lactating women.
Only one main conclusion could be extracted from this scarce number of references: a positive association between vitamin B12 intake and serum vitamin B12 in the infant group. Other associations were not reported in the eligible papers or the results were not provided in a consistent manner. The low number of papers that could be included in our systematic review is probably due to the attention that is currently given to research on vitamin B12 in elderly people. Our observations in the current systematic review justify the idea of performing well-designed studies on vitamin B12 in young populations.
To signal key issues for harmonising approaches for establishing micronutrient recommendations by explaining observed variation in recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn for adults and elderly people.
We explored differences in recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn for adults between nine reports on micronutrient recommendations. Approaches used for setting recommendations were compared as well as eminence-based decisions regarding the selection of health indicators indicating adequacy of intakes and the consulted evidence base.
In nearly all reports, recommendations were based on the average nutrient requirement. Variation in recommended folate intakes (200–400 μg/d) was related to differences in the consulted evidence base, whereas variation in vitamin B12 recommendations (1·4–3·0 μg/d) was due to the selection of different CV (10–20 %) and health indicators (maintenance of haematological status or basal losses). Variation in recommended Fe intakes (men 8–10 mg/d, premenopausal women 14·8–19·6 mg/d, postmenopausal women 7·5–10·0 mg/d) was explained by different assumed reference weights and bioavailability factors (10–18 %). Variation in Zn recommendations (men 7–14 mg/d, women 4·9–9·0 mg/d) was also explained by different bioavailability factors (24–48 %) as well as differences in the consulted evidence base.
For the harmonisation of approaches for setting recommended intakes of folate, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn across European countries, standardised methods are needed to (i) select health indicators and define adequate biomarker concentrations, (ii) make assumptions about inter-individual variation in requirements, (iii) derive bioavailability factors and (iv) collate, select, interpret and integrate evidence on requirements.
We aimed to describe the difference in B-vitamin intake and in plasma B-vitamin and homocysteine concentrations before and after folic acid fortification, in relation to dietary patterns.
The Normative Aging Study (NAS) is a longitudinal study on ageing. Between 1961 and 1970, 2280 male volunteers aged 21–80 years (mean 42 years) were recruited. Dietary intake data have been collected since 1987 and assessment of plasma B vitamins and homocysteine was added in 1993.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
In the present study, 354 men who had completed at least one FFQ and one measurement of homocysteine, both before and after the fortification period, were included.
Three dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: (i) a prudent pattern, with relatively high intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat milk and breakfast cereals; (ii) an unhealthy pattern, with high intakes of baked products, sweets and added fats; and (iii) a low fruit and vegetable but relatively high alcohol intake pattern. Dietary intake and plasma concentrations of folate increased significantly (P < 0·05) among all dietary patterns after the fortification period. Homocysteine tended to decrease in supplement non-users and in subjects in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable dietary pattern (both P = 0·08).
After fortification with folic acid, folate intake and plasma folate concentration increased significantly in all dietary patterns. There was a trend towards greatest homocysteine lowering in the high alcohol, low fruit and vegetable group.
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