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As rarely large flake graphite (9 mesh) was recently exploited in China, it was innovatively developed as the raw material to prepare a novel wound dressing based on large expanded graphite (EG) in this work. The EG worms were prepared in an easy oxidative intercalation and thermal expansion method. Afterward, chitosan was grafted onto the surface of EG by chemical modification, forming CS-EG worms. CS-EG sponge dressings were then obtained by pressing a number of CS-EG worms together by external force. Due to the porous structure and large specific surface area, the produced CS-EG sponges exhibited outstanding adsorption capacity for wound exudate. They could also promote blood coagulation by adsorbing the blood cells and proteins quickly and effectively, showing excellent hemostatic performance. The eminent performances and the simple preparation process ensure the great application potential of CS-EG as a dressing material. This is also the first time to report the application of the traditional carbon material, EG, to act as a dressing material after chemical modification.
Concentrations of IgA and IgM in milk from normal lactating cows were measured to determine whether they were affected by lactation number, lactation stage, daily milk production, milk composition and somatic cell score (SCS). A total of 284 Chinese Holstein cows showing no signs of mastitis were selected from more than 1600 cows from one farm. Concentrations of IgA and IgM in normal milk were determined by ELISA. Results revealed that average milk IgA and IgM concentrations were 235±11 and 32±3 μg/ml, respectively. IgA and IgM concentrations in milk were found to have an association with lactation number, stage of lactation, daily milk production and SCS. Both SCS and daily milk production were found to be strong significant (P<0·01) direct factors correlating to IgA concentration. Stage of lactation and SCS were found to be strong significant (P<0·01) direct factors correlating to IgM concentration.
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