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One in six adolescents suffers from mental health problems. Despite the presence of general information on Italian adolescents' mental health, researches conducted with standardized assessment tools are scarce in the literature. We evaluated the prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a group of Italian adolescents and examined their relation to socio-demographical variables.
This population-based sampling survey was conducted on high school students aged 14–18 from urban areas of Rome and Latina. Participants completed Youth Self-Report (YSR) and a socio-demographic schedule to collect information on age, gender, type of school attended, socio-economic status, urbanicity.
Final sample consisted of 1400 adolescents (38.61% male, mean age 16 years, s.d. 1.42). Prevalence of Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Total Problems was 29.55%, 18.34% and 24.13%. In our multivariable model, Internalizing Symptoms were not explained by sociodemographic variables while Externalizing Symptoms were explained by Male Gender [OR = 1.53 (1.14–2.06)], older age [OR = 2.06 (1.52–2.79)] and attending a Technical and Professional Institute [OR = 2.15 (1.53–3.02)], with an adjusted R2 = 4.32%. Total Problems were explained by School Type [Technical and Professional Institutes and Art and Humanities v. Grammar and Science School; OR respectively 1.93 (1.40–2.67) and 1.64 (1.08–2.47)], adjusted R2 = 1.94.
The study provides, for the first time, evidence of a great prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a large sample of Italian adolescents, highlighting the role of different socio-demographic variables as risk factors for externalizing behaviors. Our results emphasize the urgent need for implementing prevention programs on mental health in adolescence.
If one judges solely from contemporary accounts, the central role of Scandinavian authors in European modernism can be in little doubt. To name but a few examples, in 1897 Henry James proclaimed Henrik Ibsen the greatest living author, while three years later the young James Joyce wrote his first publication on the Norwegian dramatist's final play. Joyce, moreover, learned Norwegian so that he could read the master in the original, just as Rainer Maria Rilke taught himself Danish in order to study his beloved novelist and poet J. P. Jacobsen. Jacobsen was also an object of adulation for Robert Musil, Sigmund Freud, and Stefan George, among others; and his compatriot, Herman Bang (who was in turn highly esteemed by Thomas Mann) was central to the development of Lugné-Poë's experimental theatre in France. Ibsen's The Master Builder provided the foundation for the Belgian symbolist Maurice Maeterlinck’s theory of modern tragedy, even as Bernard Shaw and William Archer in England vigorously championed the revolutionary realism of that same play. In 1924, the American Eugene O’Neill named “among the most modern of moderns” the Swede August Strindberg, whom Joyce had imitated in his celebrated Circe episode, and whose influence can be felt with equal force in expressionist drama and epic theater, Antonin Artaud and Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot.
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