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A retrospective review of 29 patients with neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involving the anterior visual pathway was conducted. Various patterns of NVCS and visual defects were identified, most commonly involving the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. Most patients were stable, except one with progressive visual field defects. Although mostly asymptomatic, NVCS can rarely cause compressive optic neuropathy. NVCS should be kept in the differential diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma, especially with progressive visual loss despite treatment. Patients with progressive visual loss may require decompression surgery. Non-contrast computed tomography scan may miss NVCS, and magnetic resonance imaging is diagnostic.
To evaluate the utility of autologous bone-flap swab cultures performed at the time of cranioplasty in predicting postcranioplasty surgical site infection (SSI).
Retrospective cohort study.
Patients undergoing craniectomy (with bone-flap storage in tissue bank), followed by delayed autologous bone-flap replacement cranioplasty between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2020.
Tertiary-care academic hospital.
We framed the bone-flap swab culture taken at the time of cranioplasty as a diagnostic test for predicting postcranioplasty SSI. We calculated, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.
Among 282 unique eligible cases, 16 (5.6%) developed SSI after cranioplasty. A high percentage of bone-flap swab cultures were positive at the time of craniectomy (66.7%) and cranioplasty (59.5%). Most organisms from bone-flap swab cultures were Cutibacterium acnes or coagulase-negative staphylococci (76%–85%), and most SSI pathogens were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (38%). Bone-flap swab culture had poor sensitivity (0.07; 95% CI, 0.01–0.31), specificity (0.4; 95% CI, 0.34–0.45), and positive likelihood ratio (0.12) for predicting postcranioplasty SSI.
Overall, autologous bone-flap swab cultures performed at the time of cranioplasty have poor utility in predicting postcranioplasty SSI. Eliminating this low-value practice would result in significant workload reductions and associated healthcare costs.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is effective in reducing disability in selected patients with stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO), but access to this treatment is suboptimal.
We examined the proportion of patients with LVO who did not receive EVT, the reasons for non-treatment, and the association between time from onset and probability of treatment.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with acute stroke and LVO presenting between January 2017 and June 2018. We used multivariable log-binomial models to determine the association between time and probability of treatment with and without adjustment for age, sex, dementia, active cancer, baseline disability, stroke severity, and evidence of ischemia on computerized tomography.
We identified 256 patients (51% female, median age 74 [interquartile range, IQR 63.5, 82.5]), of whom 59% did not receive EVT. The main reasons for not treating with EVT were related to occlusion characteristics or infarct size. The median time from onset to EVT center arrival was longer among non-treated patients (218 minutes [142, 302]) than those who were treated (180 minutes [104, 265], p = 0.03). Among patients presenting within 6 hours of onset, the relative risk (RR) of receiving EVT decreased by 3% with every 10-minute delay in arrival to EVT center (adjusted RR 0.97 CI95 [0.95, 0.99]). This association was not found in the overall cohort.
The proportion of patients with acute stroke and confirmed LVO who do not undergo EVT is substantial. Minimizing delays in arrival to EVT center may optimize the delivery of this treatment.
Large prospective observational studies have cast doubt on the common assumption that endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is superior to intravenous thrombolysis for patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review our experience for patients with BAO undergoing EVT with modern endovascular devices.
All consecutive patients undergoing EVT with either a second-generation stent retriever or direct aspiration thrombectomy for BAO at our regional stroke center from January 1, 2013 to March 1, 2019 were included. The primary outcome measure was functional outcome at 1 month using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between patient characteristics and dichotomized mRS.
A total of 43 consecutive patients underwent EVT for BAO. The average age was 67 years with 61% male patients. Overall, 37% (16/43) of patients achieved good functional outcome. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 72% (31/43) of cases. The median (interquartile range) stroke onset to treatment time was 420 (270–639) minutes (7 hours) for all patients. The procedure-related complication rate was 9% (4/43). On multivariate analysis, posterior circulation Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score and Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography score were associated with improved functional outcome.
EVT appears to be safe and feasible in patients with BAO. Our finding that time to treatment and successful reperfusion were not associated with improved outcome is likely due to including patients with established infarcts. Given the variability of collaterals in the posterior circulation, the paradigm of utilizing a tissue window may assist in patient selection for EVT. Magnetic resonance imaging may be a reasonable option to determine the extent of ischemia in certain situations.
The aim was to assess the ability of post-treatment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to predict 90-day functional outcome in patients with endovascular therapy (EVT) for large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
We examined a retrospective cohort from March 2016 to January 2018, of consecutive patients with AIS who received EVT. Planimetric DWI was obtained and infarct volume calculated. Four blinded readers were asked to predict modified Rankin Score (mRS) at 90 days post-thrombectomy.
Fifty-one patients received endovascular treatment (mean age 65.1 years, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 18). Mean infarct volume was 43.7 mL. The baseline NIHSS, 24-hour NIHSS, and the DWI volume were lower for the mRS 0–2 group. Also, the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b/3 rate was higher in the mRS 0–2 group. No differences were found in terms of the occlusion level, reperfusion technique, or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator use. There was a significant association noted between average infarct volume and mRS at 90 days. On multivariable analysis, higher infarct volume was significantly associated with 90-day mRS 3–5 when adjusted to TICI scores and occlusion location (OR 1.01; CI 95% 1.001–1.03; p = 0.008). Area under curve analysis showed poor performance of DWI volume reader ability to qualitatively predict 90-day mRS.
The subjective impression of DWI as a predictor of clinical outcome is poorly correlated when controlling for premorbid status and other confounders. Qualitative DWI by experienced readers both overestimated the severity of stroke for patients who achieved good recovery and underestimated the mRS for poor outcome patients. Infarct core quantitation was reliable.
Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal region are rare lesions. We describe three cases of DAVF of the hypoglossal canal presenting with ocular symptoms and discuss the endovascular management options.
Three consecutive patients with DAVF of the hypoglossal canal region presented with proptosis, chemosis and disturbances of extra-ocular mobility. Each patient was treated using a different endovascular approach, based on variations of the vascular access.
The cases and treatments are reviewed, with a literature review on the subject. Endovascular treatment, transvenous or trans-arterial was curative in all cases.
DAVF of the hypoglossal canal region can present with ocular manifestations very similar to DAVF of the cavernous sinus or carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endovascular treatment is usually feasible and effective, but an understanding of the vascular anatomy and pathophysiology of the disease are of utmost importance when planning the approach.