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Although COVID-19 has been associated with psychiatric symptoms in patients, no study to date has examined the risk of hospitalization for psychiatric disorders after hospitalization for this disease.
We aimed to compare the proportions of hospitalizations for psychiatric disorders in the 12 months following either hospitalization for COVID-19 or hospitalization for another reason in the adult general population in France during the first wave of the current pandemic.
We conducted a retrospective longitudinal nationwide study based on the national French administrative healthcare database.
Among the 2,894,088 adults hospitalized, 96,313 (3.32%) were admitted for COVID-19. The proportion of patients subsequently hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder was higher for COVID-19 patients (11.09 vs. 9.24%, OR = 1.20 95%CI 1.18–1.23). Multivariable analyses provided similar results for a psychiatric disorder of any type and for psychotic and anxiety disorders (respectively, aOR = 1.06 95%CI 1.04–1.09, aOR = 1.09 95%CI 1.02–1.17, and aOR = 1.11 95%CI 1.08–1.14). Initial hospitalization for COVID-19 in intensive care units and psychiatric history were associated with a greater risk of subsequent hospitalization for any psychiatric disorder than initial hospitalization for another reason.
Compared with hospitalizations for other reasons, hospitalizations for COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in France were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization for a psychiatric disorder during the 12 months following initial discharge. This finding should encourage clinicians to increase the monitoring and assessment of psychiatric symptoms after hospital discharge for COVID-19, and to propose post-hospital care, especially for those treated in intensive care.
Tobacco use is common in subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and has sometimes been associated with better functioning in short-term studies. Only few studies embrace an extensive examination of tobacco influence on clinical, cognitive and therapeutic characteristics in stabilized SZ outpatients. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between cognitive performances and smoking status in SZ subjects.
In total, 1233 SZ participants (73.9% men, mean age 31.5) were included and tested with a comprehensive battery. Tobacco status was self-declared (never-, ex-, or current smokers). Multivariable analyses including principal component analyses (PCA) were used.
In total, 53.7% were smokers with 33.7% of them nicotine-dependent. Multiple factor analysis revealed that current tobacco smoking was associated with impaired general intellectual ability and abstract reasoning (aOR 0.60, 95% IC 0.41–0.88, p = 0.01) and with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (p = 0.026) and a lifetime cannabis use disorder (p < 0.001). Ex- and never-smokers differed for age, mean outcome, cannabis history and medication [ex-smokers being older (p = 0.047), likely to have higher income (p = 0.026), a lifetime cannabis use disorder (p < 0.001) and higher CPZeq doses (p = 0.005)]. Premorbid IQ in the three groups significantly differed with, from higher to lower: ex-smokers, never-smoker, current smokers (all p < 0.001).
This study is the largest to date providing strong evidence that chronic smoking is associated with cognitive impairment in SZ, arguing against the self-medication hypothesis as a contributor to the high prevalence of smoking in SZ. Ex-smokers may also represent a specific subgroup. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the developmental impact of tobacco on neurocognition.
The name of Désiré Bourneville is linked with tuberous sclerosis complex, which he documented and named. He also contributed to major hospital reforms, especially in the care of children with intellectual disabilities. His medical and social work with such children made him a precursor in child and adolescent psychiatry.
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