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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Correctly identifying and documenting patients’ primary care physicians in community hospital settings may improve clinical care and coordination for patients, potentially leading to a reduction in hospitalizations, while simultaneously increasing patient education and expanding the limits of electronic health record systems. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Clinical research infrastructure can be leveraged to detect inaccuracies in primary care physician (PCP) identification and documentation in a community hospital. As a result, collaboration between clinical research and hospital clinical operations can produce long-term solutions required by patient-centered, learning health care systems. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Hospitalized patients at a community hospital were asked to verify the name of their PCP. The PCP name given by the patient was then compared to the PCP on file in the EHR system. A corrected list of PCP names for each patient was sent by a clinical research program to hospital management on a weekly basis and used to update the EHR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 272 hospitalized patients were screened on the basis of eligibility and asked to verify their PCP name. Overall, 35.3% (N=96) of patients had incorrectly listed PCPs in the EHR system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Accurate PCP identification processes may enable broader clinical communication and potentially reduce future hospitalizations by improving coordination of care. The benefits of collaboration between research and clinical activities may provide an opportunity to justify greater investment in clinical research in community settings.
During the Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment (EVT) of Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE) trial, patient-level micro-costing data were collected. We report a cost-effectiveness analysis of EVT, using ESCAPE trial data and Markov simulation, from a universal, single-payer system using a societal perspective over a patient’s lifetime.
Primary data collection alongside the ESCAPE trial provided a 3-month trial-specific, non-model, based cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A Markov model utilizing ongoing lifetime costs and life expectancy from the literature was built to simulate the cost per QALY adopting a lifetime horizon. Health states were defined using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Uncertainty was explored using scenario analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
The 3-month trial-based analysis resulted in a cost per QALY of $201,243 of EVT compared to the best standard of care. In the model-based analysis, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, EVT dominated the standard of care; EVT was both more effective and less costly than the standard of care (−$91). When the time horizon was shortened to 1 year, EVT remains cost savings compared to standard of care (∼$15,376 per QALY gained with EVT). However, if the estimate of clinical effectiveness is 4% less than that demonstrated in ESCAPE, EVT is no longer cost savings compared to standard of care.
Results support the adoption of EVT as a treatment option for acute ischemic stroke, as the increase in costs associated with caring for EVT patients was recouped within the first year of stroke, and continued to provide cost savings over a patient’s lifetime.
Evidence-based infection control strategies are needed for healthcare workers (HCWs) following high-risk exposure to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, we evaluated the negative predictive value (NPV) of a home-based 7-day infection control strategy.
HCWs advised by their infection control or occupational health officer to self-isolate due to a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure were enrolled between May and October 2020. The strategy consisted of symptom-triggered nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing from day 0 to day 7 after exposure and standardized home-based nasopharyngeal swab and saliva testing on day 7. The NPV of this strategy was calculated for (1) clinical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis from day 8–14 after exposure, and for (2) asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 detected by standardized nasopharyngeal swab and saliva specimens collected at days 9, 10, and 14 after exposure. Interim results are reported in the context of a second wave threatening this essential workforce.
Among 30 HCWs enrolled, the mean age was 31 years (SD, ±9), and 24 (80%) were female. Moreover, 3 were diagnosed with COVID-19 by day 14 after exposure (secondary attack rate, 10.0%), and all cases were detected using the 7-day infection control strategy: the NPV for subsequent clinical COVID-19 or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 detection by day 14 was 100.0% (95% CI, 93.1%–100.0%).
Among HCWs with high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2, a home-based 7-day infection control strategy may have a high NPV for subsequent COVID-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 detection. Ongoing data collection and data sharing are needed to improve the precision of the estimated NPV, and here we report interim results to inform infection control strategies in light of a second wave threatening this essential workforce.
To examine socio-economic inequalities in decreases in household sugar purchasing in Great Britain (GB).
Longitudinal, population-based study.
Data were obtained from the GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel (2014–2017), a nationally representative panel study of food and beverages bought and brought into the home. We estimated changes in daily sugar purchases by occupational social grade from twenty-three food groups, using generalised estimating equations (household-level clustering).
British households who regularly reported food and beverages to the GB Kantar FMCG (n 28 033).
We found that lower social grades obtained a lower proportion of sugar from healthier foods and a greater proportion of sugar from less healthy foods and beverages. In 2014, differences in daily sugar purchased between the lowest and the highest social grades were 3·9 g/capita/d (95 % CI 2·9, 4·8) for table sugar, 2·4 g (95 % CI 1·8, 3·1) for sugar-sweetened beverages, 2·2 g (95 % CI 1·5, 2·8) for chocolate and confectionery and 1·0 g (95 % CI 0·7, 1·3) for biscuits. Conversely, the lowest social grade purchased less sugar from fruits (2·1 g (95 % CI 1·5, 2·8)) and vegetables (0·7 g (95 % CI 0·5, 0·8)) than the highest social grade. We found little evidence of change in social grade differences between 2014 and 2017. These results suggest that recent overall declines in sugar purchases are largely equally distributed across socio-economic groups.
This suggests that recent population-level policy activity to reduce sugar consumption in GB does not appear to exacerbate or reduce existing socio-economic inequalities in sugar purchasing. Low agency, population-level policies may be the best solution to improving population diet without increasing inequalities.
The Tailored Activity Program (TAP) is an evidence-based occupational therapist-led intervention for people living with dementia and their care partners at home, developed in the USA. This study sought to understand its acceptability to people living with dementia, their care partners, and health professionals, and factors that might influence willingness to participate prior to its implementation in Australia.
This study used qualitative descriptive methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people living with dementia in the community (n = 4), their care partners (n = 13), and health professionals (n = 12). People living with dementia were asked about health professionals coming to their home to help them engage in activities they enjoy, whereas care partners’ and health professionals’ perspectives of TAP were sought, after it was described to them. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or via telephone. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes.
Analysis identified four key themes labelled: (i) TAP sounds like a good idea; (ii) the importance of enjoyable activities; (iii) benefits for care partners; and (iv) weighing things up. Findings suggest the broad, conditional acceptability of TAP from care partners and health professionals, who also recognised challenges to its use. People living with dementia expressed willingness to receive help to continue engaging in enjoyable activities, if offered.
While TAP appeared generally acceptable, a number of barriers were identified that must be considered prior to, and during its implementation. This study may inform implementation of non-pharmacological interventions more broadly.
Social cognitive deficits can have many negative consequences, spanning social withdrawal to psychopathology. Prior work has shown that child maltreatment may associate with poorer social cognitive skills in later life. However, no studies have examined this association from early childhood into adolescence. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4,438), we examined the association between maltreatment (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse), assessed repeatedly (every 1–3 years) from birth to age 9, and social cognitive skills at ages 7.5, 10.5, and 14 years. We evaluated the role of both the developmental timing (defined by age at exposure) and accumulation of maltreatment (defined as the number of occasions exposed) using a least angle regression variable selection procedure, followed by structural equation modeling. Among females, accumulation of maltreatment explained the most variation in social cognitive skills. For males, no significant associations were found. These findings underscore the importance of early intervention to minimize the accumulation of maltreatment and showcase the importance of prospective studies to understand the development of social cognition over time.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have rapidly become a global health concern and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality due to limited treatment options. Travel to endemic areas, especially healthcare exposure in these areas, is an important risk factor for acquisition. We describe the evolving epidemiology, molecular features, and outcomes of CPE in Canada through surveillance by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP). Methods: CNISP has conducted surveillance for CPE among inpatients and outpatients of all ages since 2010. Participating acute-care facilities submit eligible specimens to the National Microbiology Laboratory for detection of carbapenemase production, and epidemiological data are collected. Incidence rates per 10,000 patient days are calculated based on inpatient data. Results: In total, 59 CNISP hospitals in 10 Canadian provinces representing 21,789 beds and 6,785,013 patient days participated in this surveillance. From 2010 to 2018, 118 (26%) CPE-infected and 547 (74%) CPE-colonized patients were identified. Few pediatric cases were identified (n = 18). Infection incidence rates remain low and stable (0.02 per 10,000 patient days in 2010 to 0.03 per 10,000 patient days in 2018), and colonization incidence rates have increased by 89% over the surveillance period. Overall, 92% of cases were acquired in a healthcare facility: 61% (n = 278) in a Canadian healthcare facility and 31% (n = 142) in a healthcare facility outside Canada. Of the 8% of cases not acquired in a healthcare facility, 50% (16 of 32) reported travel outside of Canada in the 12 months prior to positive culture. The distribution of carbapenemases varied by region; New Delhi metallo-B-lactamase (NDM) was dominant (59%) in western Canada and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) (66%) in central Canada. NDM and class D carbapenemase OXA-48 were more commonly identified among those who traveled outside of Canada, whereas KPC was more commonly identified among patients without travel. In addition, 30-day all-cause mortality was 14% (25 of 181) among CPE infected patients and 32% (14 of 44) among those with bacteremia. Conclusions: CPE rates remain low in Canada; however, national surveillance data suggest that the increase in CPE in Canada is now being driven by local nosocomial transmission as well as travel and healthcare within endemic areas. Changes in screening practices may have contributed to the increase in colonizations; however, these data are currently lacking and will be collected moving forward. These data highlight the need to intensify surveillance and coordinate infection control measures to prevent further spread of CPE in Canadian acute-care hospitals.
Susy Hota reports contracted research for Finch Therapeutics. Allison McGeer reports funds to her institution for projects for which she is the principal investigator from Pfizer and Merck, as well as consulting fees from the following companies: Sanofi-Pasteur, Sunovion, GSK, Pfizer, and Cidara.
To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 152-item semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) for estimating flavonoid intakes.
Over a 1-year period, participants completed two SFFQ and two weighed 7-d dietary records (7DDR). Flavonoid intakes from the SFFQ were estimated separately using Harvard (SFFQHarvard) and Phenol-Explorer (SFFQPE) food composition databases. 7DDR flavonoid intakes were derived using the Phenol-Explorer database (7DDRPE). Validity was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients deattenuated for random measurement error (rs), and reproducibility was assessed using rank intraclass correlation coefficients.
This validation study included primarily participants from two large observational cohort studies.
Six hundred forty-one men and 724 women.
When compared with two 7DDRPE, the validity of total flavonoid intake assessed by SFFQPE was high for both men and women (rs = 0·77 and rs = 0·74, respectively). The rs for flavonoid subclasses ranged from 0·47 for flavones to 0·78 for anthocyanins in men and from 0·46 for flavonols to 0·77 for anthocyanins in women. We observed similarly moderate (0·4–0·7) to high (≥0·7) validity when using SFFQHarvard estimates, except for flavonesHarvard (rs = 0·25 for men and rs = 0·19 for women). The SFFQ demonstrated high reproducibility for total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake estimates when using either food composition database. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0·69 (flavonolsPE) to 0·80 (proanthocyanidinsPE) in men and from 0·67 (flavonolsPE) to 0·77 (flavan-3-ol monomersHarvard) in women.
SFFQ-derived intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (except for flavones) are valid and reproducible for both men and women.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese people in England has led policymakers to consider regulating the use of price promotions on foods high in fat, sugar and salt content. In January 2019, the government opened a consultation programme for a policy proposal that significantly restricts the use of price promotions that can induce consumers to buy higher volumes of unhealthy foods and beverages. These proposed policies are the first of their kind in public health and are believed to reduce excess purchasing and, therefore, overconsumption of unhealthy products. This study summarises evidence relating price promotions to the purchasing of food and drink for home consumption and places it in the context of the proposed policy.
Non-systematic review of quantitative analyses of price promotions in food and drink published in peer-reviewed journals and sighted by PubMed, ScienceDirect & EBSCOhost between 1980 and January 2018.
While the impact of price promotions on sales has been of interest to marketing academics for a long time with modelling studies showing that its use has increased food and drink sales by 12–43 %, it is only now being picked up in the public health sphere. However, existing evidence does not consider the effects of removing or restricting the use of price promotions across the food sector. In this commentary, we discuss existing evidence, how it deals with the complexity of shoppers’ behaviour in reacting to price promotions on foods and, importantly, what can be learned from it in this policy context.
The current evidence base supports the notion that price promotions increase purchasing of unhealthy food, and while the proposed restriction policy is yet to be evaluated for consumption and health effects, there is arguably sufficient evidence to proceed. This evidence is not restricted to volume-based promotions. Close monitoring and proper evaluation should follow to provide empirical evidence of its intended and unintended effects.
This chapter demonstrates the varied role the foot has played in shaping phonological and morphophonological patterns across the Germanic languages. Data from German and Dutch dialects highlight how features are licensed differently in strong versus weak branches of feet paving the way for a range of patterns including medial consonant cluster simplification and consonant lenition which often result in worsened phonetic cues. The trochee is shown to shape morphological processes such as Dutch and German plural formation via prosodic templates in both the standard languages and dialects. Lastly, vowel balance in Frisian and Scandinavian, a process often argued to result from stress patterns and stem shapes, is reinterpreted in terms of the trochaic foot. The foot-based approach provides a unified account for various manifestations of vowel balance across the dialects. Scratching the surface of Germanic phenomena, the chapter serves to invite the reader to consider other patterns which may also be prosodically driven in terms of the foot and foot-based templates.
Halting biodiversity loss depends on changing people’s choices and actions. Increasingly, conservationists use approaches based on social marketing to influence people’s behaviour for the benefit of wider society through techniques developed in the business world. We give definitions of the terms and outline when it should be used instead of, or alongside, law-based, education-based and technical intervention-based approaches. We then illustrate the systematic, step-by-step process underpinning social marketing campaigns with an example from the Caribbean, where the number of people taking wild parrots as pets was successfully reduced. This is followed by examples of social marketing from three different conservation contexts: in community-based natural resource management to reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, in demand reduction for rhino horn products, and in flagship species fundraising to broaden the benefits for biodiversity. We discuss the lessons that relate more broadly to conservation, including the need to acknowledge ethical issues and the difficulties involved in changing behaviour and the importance of identifying target audiences and evaluating campaigns.
Observational studies have linked elevated homocysteine to vascular conditions. Folate intake has been associated with lower homocysteine concentration, although randomised controlled trials of folic acid supplementation to decrease the incidence of vascular conditions have been inconclusive. We investigated determinants of maternal homocysteine during pregnancy, particularly in a folic acid-fortified population.
Data were from the Ottawa and Kingston Birth Cohort of 8085 participants. We used multivariable regression analyses to identify factors associated with maternal homocysteine, adjusted for gestational age at bloodwork. Continuous factors were modelled using restricted cubic splines. A subgroup analysis examined the modifying effect of MTHFR 677C>T genotype on folate, in determining homocysteine concentration.
Participants were recruited in Ottawa and Kingston, Canada, from 2002 to 2009.
Women were recruited when presenting for prenatal care in the early second trimester.
In 7587 participants, factors significantly associated with higher homocysteine concentration were nulliparous, smoking and chronic hypertension, while factors significantly associated with lower homocysteine concentration were non-Caucasian race, history of a placenta-mediated complication and folic acid supplementation. Maternal age and BMI demonstrated U-shaped associations. Folic acid supplementation of >1 mg/d during pregnancy did not substantially increase folate concentration. In the subgroup analysis, MTHFR 677C>T modified the effect of folate status on homocysteine concentration.
We identified determinants of maternal homocysteine relevant to the lowering of homocysteine in the post-folic acid fortification era, characterised by folate-replete populations. A focus on periconceptional folic acid supplementation and improving health status may form an effective approach to lower homocysteine.
Chickenpox is caused by varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and is highly contagious. Immigration detention settings are a high-risk environment for primary VZV transmission, with large, rapidly-changing populations in close quarters, and higher susceptibility among non-UK-born individuals. During outbreaks, operational challenges occur in detention settings because of high-turnover and the potential need to implement population movement restriction for prolonged periods. Between December 2017 and February 2018, four cases of chickenpox were notified amongst 799 detainees in an immigration removal centre (IRC). Microbiological investigations included case confirmation by vesicular fluid polymerase chain reaction, and VZV serology for susceptibility testing. Control measures involved movement restrictions, isolation of cases, quarantining and cohorting of non-immune contacts and extending VZV immunity testing to the wider detainee population to support outbreak management. Immunity was tested for 301/532 (57%) detainees, of whom 24 (8%) were non-immune. The level of non-immunity was lower than expected based on the existing literature on VZV seroprevalence in detained populations in England. Serology results identified non-immune contacts who could be cohorted and, due to the lack of isolation capacity, allowed the placement of cases with immune detainees. The widespread immunity testing of all detainees was proving challenging to sustain because it required significant resources and was having a severe impact on operational capacity and the ability to maintain core business activities at the IRC. Therefore, mathematical modelling was used to assess the impact of scaling back mass immunity testing. Modelling demonstrated that interrupting testing posed a risk of one additional case compared to continuing with testing. As such, the decision was made to stop testing, and the outbreak was successfully controlled without excessive strain on resources. Operational challenges generated learning for future outbreaks, with implications for a local and national policy on IRC staff occupational health requirements, and proposed reception screening of detainees for VZV immunity.
Depression and chronic inflammatory medical conditions have been linked to impaired cognitive ability. However despite frequent comorbidity, their combined association with cognitive ability has rarely been examined.
This study examined associations between self-reported depression and chronic inflammatory diseases and their interaction with cognitive performance in 456,748 participants of the UK Biobank, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Numbers with available data ranged from 94,899 to 453,208 depending on the cognitive test.
Self-reported depression was associated with poorer performance compared to controls in several cognitive tests (fully adjusted models, reaction time: B = 6.08, 95% CI = 5.09, 7.07; pairs matching: incidence rate ratio = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.03; Trail Making Test B: B = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.88, 1.87; Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST): B = −0.35, 95% CI = −0.44, −0.27). Self-reported chronic inflammatory conditions were associated with slower reaction time (B = 3.79, 95% CI = 2.81, 4.78) and lower DSST scores (B = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.30, −0.13). No interaction effects were observed.
In this large, population-based study we provide evidence of lower cognitive performance in both depression and a comprehensive category of chronic inflammatory conditions. Results are consistent with additive effects of both types of disorder on cognitive ability. Clinicians should be aware of such effects, particularly as cognitive impairment is linked to poorer disease outcomes and quality of life.
The addition of Cr2O3 to modern UO2 fuel modifies the microstructure so that, through the generation of larger grains during fission, a higher proportion of fission gases can be accommodated. This reduces the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction of the fuel rods, allowing the fuels to be “burned” for longer than traditional UO2 fuel, thus maximising the energy obtained. We here describe the preparation of UO2 and Cr-doped UO2 using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), as a potential method for fuel fabrication, and for development of analogue materials for spent nuclear fuel research. Characterization of the synthesised materials confirmed that high density UO2 was successfully formed, and that Cr was present as particles at grain boundaries and also within the UO2 matrix, possibly in a reduced form due to the processing conditions. In contrast to studies of Cr-doped UO2 synthesised by other methods, no significant changes to the grain size were observed in the presence of Cr.
This article examines how communicative resources affect the construction of credible texts and identities in a public debate on Australia's treatment of a refugee. It centres on two key written statements—one from the Immigration Minister, and another from a Somali refugee. The analysis is divided into four levels, exploring the parties’ respective linguistic, material, identity, and platform resources, and how these impact their statements’ creation and reception, and their participation in discourse creation more generally. The article finds that there are inequalities on all four resource levels that largely undermine the refugee's ability to present a credible text and identity and challenge mainstream discourse on refugees. The article demonstrates how a multi-level analysis of communicative resources can challenge assumptions about participation and uncover inequalities invisible in the prevailing discourse. (Asylum, Australia, communicative resources, discourse, intercultural communication, media, power, refugee)*
People with bipolar disorder typically require long-term pharmacological treatment to prevent episodes of depression or mania. However, evidence-based guidelines are often not followed by prescribers and, in some countries, prescribing of lithium is in decline. Polypharmacy is also common in bipolar disorder.
To employ a data linkage approach to describe and evaluate prescribing patterns in bipolar disorder in Scotland between 2009 and 2016.
By linking prescribing data to the electronic Scottish Morbidity Records, we identified a cohort of 23 135 patients with bipolar disorder who were prescribed psychotropic medication between 2009 and 2016. We examined trends in proportions of patients prescribed each of six drug categories. Random effects logistic models examined change in prescribing over years of interest.
The most common form of treatment was antidepressant monotherapy (24.96%), with only 5.90% of patients receiving lithium monotherapy. Prescribing of antipsychotics and anti-epileptics increased from 2009 to 2016 (antipsychotics: odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.15–1.18; anti-epileptics: odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.32–1.36), whereas prescribing of lithium decreased (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.82–0.85). Prescribing of valproate decreased from 2009–2016 in women, but increased in men (women: odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.90–0.97; men: odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.18).
Antidepressant monotherapy was the most common form of treatment for bipolar disorder in Scotland and prescribing of lithium has declined between 2009 and 2016. The findings are concerning and represent a gap between treatment guidelines and clinical practice.
On October 7, 2016, Hurricane Matthew traveled along the coasts of Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina causing flooding and power outages. The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) developed the Web-based Responder Safety, Tracking, and Resilience (R-STaR) system to monitor the health and safety of public health responders and to inform disaster response planning for Hurricane Matthew. Using R-STaR, responders (n = 126) were e-mailed a daily survey while deployed to document injuries or harmful exposures and a post-deployment survey on their post-deployment health and satisfaction with using R-STaR. DPH epidemiologists contacted responders reporting injuries or exposures to determine the need for medical care. Frequencies were tabulated for quantitative survey responses, and qualitative data were summarized into key themes. Five percent (6/126) of responders reported injuries, and 81% (43/53) found R-STaR easy to use. Suggestions for R-STaR improvement included improving accessibility using mobile platforms and conducting pre-event training of responders on R-STaR. Lessons learned from R-STaR development and evaluation can inform the development and improvement of responder health surveillance systems at other local and state health departments and disaster and emergency response agencies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:74–81).