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Numerous animal models and epidemiological and observational studies have demonstrated that enterovirus (EV) infection could be involved in the development of clinical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but its aetiology is not fully understood. Therefore, we reviewed the association between EV infection and clinical T1DM. We searched PubMed and Embase from inception to April 2021 and reference lists of included studies without any language restrictions in only human studies. The correlation between EV infection and clinical T1DM was calculated as the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), analysed using random-effects models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the associations. A total of 25 articles (22 case–control studies and three nested case–control studies) met the inclusion criterion including 4854 participants (2948 cases and 1906 controls) with a high level of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 80%, P < 0.001) mainly attributable to methods of EV detection, study type, age distribution, source of EV sample and control subjects. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between EV infection and clinical T1DM (OR 5.75, 95% CI 3.61–9.61). There is a clinically significant association between clinical T1DM and EV infection.
Probiotics and plant extracts are considered to prevent the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explores the effects of using both probiotics and plant extracts on NAFLD. The present study evaluated the effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet accumulation and the growth of probiotics in vitro. A C57BL/6 mouse model was used to examine the effects of probiotics and plant extracts on NAFLD. Body weight and food intake were measured. The levels of serum lipids, oxidative stress and the liver injury index were determined using commercial kits. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, GC and real-time PCR were also used for analysis. The results revealed that administration of Lactobacillus casei YRL577 and L. paracasei X11 with resveratrol (RES) or tea polyphenols (TP) significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol, TAG and LDL-cholesterol and increased the level of the HDL-cholesterol. The groups of L. casei YRL577 with RES and TP also regulated the liver structure, oxidative stress and injury. Furthermore, L. casei YRL577 with TP exhibited a more positive effect towards improving the NAFLD and increased the concentrations of the butyric acid than other three combined groups. L. casei YRL577 with TP up-regulated the mRNA levels of the farnesoid X receptor and fibroblast growth factor 15 and decreased the mRNA levels of the apical Na-dependent bile acid transporter. These findings showed that L. casei YRL577 + TP-modified genes in the intestinal bile acid pathway improved markers of NAFLD.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the main cause of end-stage liver disease. Probiotics have the potential effect of alleviating NAFLD. The aim of this study was to explore functional probiotics and their underlying mechanisms. The bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in thirty-four strains was determined in vitro. Then, C57BL/6 mice were used to explore the effects of probiotics on NAFLD. Body weight and food intake were measured, and serum lipid concentrations, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines levels were determined using commercial kits. The expressions of intestinal bile acid pathway genes were evaluated via real-time PCR. The results showed that Lactobacillus casei YRL577 and L. paracasei X11 had higher BSH activity. L. casei YRL577 significantly reduced liver weight and liver index and could regulate the levels of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines as compared with L. paracasei X11. Furthermore, the results indicated that L. casei YRL577 up-regulated the mRNA levels of farnesoid X receptor and fibroblast growth factor 15, whereas down-regulated the mRNA level of apical Na-dependent bile acid transporter. These findings suggested that L. casei YRL577 modified genes in the intestinal bile acid pathway which might contribute to the alleviation of NAFLD.
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