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Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of COVID-19 due to high levels of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Thus, effective vaccines are needed. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on COVID-19 short-term vaccine effectiveness among HCWs.
We searched PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science from December 2019 to June 11, 2021, for studies evaluating vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 among HCWs. To meta-analyze the extracted data, we calculated the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for COVID-19 between vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 100% × (1 − DOR). We also performed a stratified analysis for vaccine effectiveness by vaccination status: 1 dose and 2 doses of the vaccine.
We included 13 studies, including 173,742 HCWs evaluated for vaccine effectiveness in the meta-analysis. The vast majority (99.9%) of HCWs were vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. The pooled DOR for symptomatic COVID-19 among vaccinated HCWs was 0.072 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.028–0.184) with an estimated vaccine effectiveness of 92.8% (95% CI, 81.6%–97.2%). In stratified analyses, the estimated vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 among HCWs who had received 1 dose of vaccine was 82.1% (95% CI, 46.1%–94.1%) and the vaccine effectiveness among HCWs who had received 2 doses was 93.5% (95% CI, 82.5%–97.6%).
The COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are highly effective against symptomatic COVID-19, even with 1 dose. More observational studies are needed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness of other COVID-19 vaccines, COVID-19 breakthrough after vaccination, and vaccine efficacy against new variants.
The main factors that are involved in a correct adherence to the therapeutic recommendations in Bipolar Disorder includes aspects related to age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic level and characteristics of the illness associated with the severity, comorbidity and adverse effects related to previous medicine.
To analyse the individual perception that the patient with Bipolar Disorder has regarding the positive and negative aspects of taking the recommended medication.
Descriptive and interpretative observational study under the qualitative paradigm of research, extracting the data through the completion of four focus groups with ten patients everyone. To complete the codification of the content of the participant’s discourses, we rely on the QRS NVivo 10 computer program.
In the participant’s discourse concerning the main barriers to pharmacological treatment, for example “It’s because we live in a society and, because of that, we don’t go without medicine; if we didn’t live in society, we wouldn’t take medicine because we wouldn’t bother anyone”. Some examples of patient’s discourse, about perceived facilitators were: “I have to take medicine for my bipolar disorder, that’s it, I have a treatment, my illness has a name”.
The main facilitators regarding the use of pharmacological treatment in Bipolar Disorder are the perceived need for treatment in the acute phase and the recognition of the illness, the shared clinical decision and the causal biological attribution in the chronic phase. About perceived barriers, social control is identified in both phases, adverse effects in the acute cases and the absence of effective treatment in the chronic state.
UV-initiated crosslinking of electrospun poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) was performed using pentaerythritol triaclyrate (PETA) as the photoinitiator and crosslinker agent. The influence of the addition of PETA to the PEO/CS diameter and crosslinking of nanofibers was evaluated. The effect of irradiation time on the morphology and swelling properties of the crosslinked nanofibers were investigated. For ZnO-NPs, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found at 1 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentrations at 2 mg/mL for all the strains tested. The nanofibrous hydrogel antibacterial effect was tested. This material enters the realm of fibrous hydrogels which have potential use in several applications as in the biomedical area.
According to the stress inoculation hypothesis, successfully navigating life stressors may improve one's ability to cope with subsequent stressors, thereby increasing psychiatric resilience.
Among individuals with no baseline history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD), to determine whether a history of a stressful life event protected participants against the development of PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster.
Analyses utilised data from a multiwave, prospective cohort study of adult Chilean primary care attendees (years 2003–2011; n = 1160). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument, and the List of Threatening Experiences, a 12-item questionnaire that measures major stressful life events. During the study (2010), the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later (2011), the CIDI was re-administered to assess post-disaster PTSD and/or MDD.
Marginal structural logistic regressions indicated that for every one-unit increase in the number of pre-disaster stressors, the odds of developing post-disaster PTSD or MDD increased (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.37, and OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.27 respectively). When categorising pre-disaster stressors, individuals with four or more stressors (compared with no stressors) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.52–5.04), and a dose–response relationship between pre-disaster stressors and post-disaster MDD was found.
In contrast to the stress inoculation hypothesis, results indicated that experiencing multiple stressors increased the vulnerability to developing PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster. Increased knowledge regarding the individual variations of these disorders is essential to inform targeted mental health interventions after a natural disaster, especially in under-studied populations.
The main objective of this research is to present the results of a study about the relations between health and the acts of violence towards women.
They were chosen important institutions in the Health Care instalment in 18 districts of the Portuguese Continent.
The results now presented, correspond to a long and unceasing psycho-sociological investigation amongst women with 18 and more years that had been in those institutions back in 2003 what resulted in 2300 inquiries.
The results had allowed us to make a comparative analysis between women whose manifestations of illness to the physical and psychological level could be related with the acts of violence of that they had been victims and those that, having similar manifestations, had not been victims.
We have tried to obtain descriptive and comprehensive models of the types of illness and it's relation with the violent acts, as well as the psycho-socio-cultural conditions where they had occurred.
This study will be able to constitute a support instrument to the decision and action of the agents involved in this domain. To the definition of politics level, to the implementation of promotion measures of health and prevention of illness, in order to contribute for the improvement of the quality of life of those women.
The results not only represent an increase in the Health knowledge but are also able to give us an idea of the socio-cultural complexity that are in the base of the violence against women.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
The efficacy of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in dual schizophrenia patients has been well established.
To investigate the efficacy of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate(PPLAI) in the psychopathology of dual psychotic patients. To examine the tolerability profile of PPLAI in dual psychosis.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. We used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychotic symptoms and the Udvalg für Kliniske Undersogelser Scale (UKU) to evaluate treatment tolerability, at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Prolactin levels were also determined at the time of the study inclusion and after 6 months.
Thirty-five patients were included into the study. After 6 months of treatment, patients receiving PPLAI showed a significant improvement in positive symptoms (disorganisation, suspiciousness), negative symptoms (emotional withdrawal, motor retardation, blunted affect and confusion), affective symptoms (somatic concern, anxiety and depression) and in motor symptoms (unco-operativeness, excitement). When compared to the 3rd month assessment, after 6 months, statistically significant differences were found in items 4,11,14,17 and 18. Patients receiving PPLAI had lower rates of side effects assessed by UKU Scale (asthenia, sedation, failing memory, tension, insomnia, rigidity, tremor, weight gain and sexual dysfunction). Baseline prolactin levels ranged 11–122 (mean:38), at 6 months: 20–136 (mean:38.4).
After 6 months, patients receiving PPLAI had lower psychotic symptoms, a decrease in side effects, and a significant improvement in global functioning. No changes in prolactin levels were found.
Depression is very common among institutionalized elders. Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment/dementia, and mortality we want to describe the evolution of depression and analyze predictive factors.
In the Aging Trajectories Study (Instituto Superior Miguel Torga - Coimbra), we followed up a sample of 83 nondemented persons (M ± SD baseline age = 79.51 ± 6.58; men: 17; women: 66). In a 2-year prospective cohort analysis (2010-2011, and 2013), we assessed depression using the Geriatric Depressive Scale/GDS as screening tool and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression. We also used the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale/PANAS. Sociodemographics, and health were control variables. We performed a multinomial logistic regression to identify predicitive factors.
Fifty participants had depression at baseline, nine developed, 49 maintained, nine remitted, and 16 maintained without depression.
Having depression was associated with worse scores in UCLA, GAI, and PANAS. Not having depression was correlated with higher positive affect.
Baseline higher GAI and UCLA, and lower positive affect and satisfaction predicted recurrent depression.
Improvement in GDS, GAI, and positive affect predicted depression remission.
Results show that depression is a concern issue for professionals working with institutionalized elderly. Anxiety, loneliness, low positive affect and satisfaction constitute a risk factor for maintaing depression in institutionalized elderly and low anxiety and depressive symptoms are a protective factors for depression. These results could be used in depression prevention programs.
Cognitive rehabilitation techniques, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation therapy, have shown an impact on cognition, life satisfaction, mood, and on the progression of cognitive decline in elderly.
To test the effectiveness of a NRGP on the cognitive and emotional functioning of institutionalized elderly.
single blind randomized controlled study with paired groups.
Coimbra institutionalized elderly, aged between 64-92 (N = 88) with cognitive impairment no dementia, mostly women (75.0%).
randomization of participants to the rehabilitation group/RG (n = 41) and to the comparison/waiting-list group/CG (n = 23). NRGP involved groups of five elders, and took 90 min. per day, once a week, for 10 weeks.
Mini-Mental State Examination/MMSE, Frontal Evaluation Battery/FAB, Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS.
We used general linear model with repeated measures analysis of variance.
RG improved significantly on cognitive, and executive function (p < 0.001), and CG worsened on cognitive, executive function, and mood (p < 0.01). There was a significant effect on the MMSE, FAB, and GDS scores, after excluding pre-rehabilitation scores as covariates [F (1, 81) = 43.98, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.35; F(1, 80) = 28.37, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.26; F(1, 79) = 19.66, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.20].
A NRGP including cognitive rehabilitation, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation proved to be effective on cognitive and executive functioning, and on depressive symptoms of institutionalized elders with cognitive impairment no dementia.
Group psychoeducation is an effective psychotherapy in the treatment of addictive behaviours.
To evaluate the efficacy of group psychoeducation on quality of life in relatives of dual diagnosed patients.
To investigate the impact of group psychoeducation on treatment compliance.
A case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and July 2012. Case group: seventy relatives and 53 patients included into an 8 session systematic psychoeducational group designed as follows: 1.5 hours every 3 weeks. The control group was formed by 53 patients who did not participate in psychoeducation during the same period. To assess quality of life in relatives, we used the Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). Attendance rates for appointments were recorded in patients from both groups.
At baseline, relatives had poor outcomes in quality of life (Vitality: 49.8; emotional role: 49.3; mental health: 51.8, and general health perception: 54.9). Psychoeducated, as compared to control group relatives, had significantly better outcomes in quality of life (Vitality 71.0; emotional role 82.6; mental health 72.6, and general health perception 66.5). When compared to the control group, mean psychiatric appointments were higher in patients whose relatives were psychoeducated (8.2 vs.3.6).
Our findings suggest that psychoeducation can improve quality of life in relatives of patients with addictive behaviours. Attendance rates for appointments were higher in patients whose relatives were psychoeducated.
Family psychoeducation is an effective intervention extensively used in the treatment of mental disorders.
To examine the efficacy of group psychoeducation in anxious and depressive symptoms in relatives of patients with addictive behaviours. To investigate satisfaction levels in relatives.
Seventy relatives of 53 outpatients were included into group psychoeducation between January and July 2012. This 8 session structured psychoeducational group is designed as follows: 1.5 hours every 3 weeks. To assess psychopathological symptoms, we used the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period. Family satisfaction levels were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).
59% of relatives were men, and mean age was 55 years. 45% of the patients had a cocaine dependence disorder, 34% alcohol dependence disorder, and 93% co-dependence disorders. 74% had a dual diagnosis (Psychosis, affective disorders, or personality disorders). 90% had psychosocial stress (60% moderate or severe). Anxious symptoms were found in 30% of the relatives, being psychic anxiety most common in women than in men. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were found in 30% of relatives (mild:30%; moderate:25%, severe:15%). Women were more likely to have moderate-severe depression and men mild-depression disorders. After 8 sessions, mean satisfaction levels assessed by EVA Scale were 9.2
Statistically significant gender differences in anxious and depressive symptoms were found in relatives. Satisfaction levels were higher than expected, and a significant reduction in anxiety and depression was found after the group psychoeducation.
In recent years, special attention has been paid to the quality of life in dual psychotic patients.
To study quality of life in psychotic patients with co-occurring substance use recently treated with long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) in monotherapy.
An open-label, non-interventional, observational study was carried out in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who were recently treated with PPLAI in monotherapy. At baseline, main demographic and clinical variables were recorded. The Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36) was assessed at the time of the study inclusion, and after 3 and 6 months. Thirty-five patients completed the study.
81% were men, and mean age was 39 years. 31% had an alcohol dependence disorder, 26% opiates, 24% cocaine, 14% cannabis, and 100% nicotine dependence. 95% had co-dependence substance use disorders. 38% per cent were diagnosed as having an unspecified psychosis, 36% schizophrenia, 57% Axis II and 55% III disorders. 29% were previously treated with oral antipsychotics, and 71% received long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI). 83% were treated with other non-psychopharmacological drugs. After 6 months of treatment, higher scores were found in the following SF-36 items: Vitality (31 vs.77), social functioning (48 vs.85), mental health (49 vs 78), health subjective perception (45 vs.70), and health improvement (65 vs.87). Transaminase levels did not change after treatment. Mean PPLAI dosage at baseline: 111.18 mg; mean dosage at 6 months: 132.86.
High psychopathological and organic comorbidity was found. Quality of life improved after 6 months of treatment. PPLAI 100 mg was the most common prescribed dosage.
Life functioning difficulties are a relevant but undervalued consequence of major depression. Mood symptoms and cognitive deficits have a significant, and somehow independent, impact on them. Therefore, cognitive difficulties should be considered a potential target to improve patients’ functioning.
To examine the degree in which objective and subjective cognition explain functional outcome.
To assess objective cognitive function (CF) with a neuropsychological battery and to measure subjective CF using measures of cognitive perception.
Ninety-nine patients with depression were assessed by age, sex and level of schooling. Depressive symptoms severity was measured by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Objective CF consisted in the following cognitive domains: memory, attention, executive functioning and processing speed. Subjective CF was assessed with Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-Depression (PDQ-D). Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) was used to evaluate life functioning, excluding the cognitive domain. All the listed measures were included in a multiple regression analysis with FAST scores as dependent variable.
The regression model was significant (F1,98 = 67.484, P < 0.001) with an R of 0.825. The variables showing statistical power included (from higher to lower β-coefficient) HDRS-17 (β = 0.545, t = 8.453, P < 0.001), PDQ-D (β = 0.383, t = 6.047, P < 0.001) and DSST (β = −0.123, t = −1.998, P = 0.049).
The severity of depressive symptoms is the variable that best explains life functioning. Surprisingly, the second factor hindering it is the patients’ perception of their cognition. Current findings highlight the importance of correcting cognitive bias in order to improve functionality. However, results have to be taken cautiously as mood symptoms could partly explain the bias.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders has not been yet clarified. The presence of ADHD was significantly correlated with more severe binge eating, bulimic behaviors, and depressive symptomatology. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between ADHD subtypes in adults and the risk of food addiction (binge eating disorder).
The sample was collected on a specific program for adults with ADHD diagnosis in Madrid (Spain). In total, the sample was 110 patients, and we collected information about socio-demographic factors. All patients met DSM-5 criteria for ADHD in different subtypes. We used the conner's Adult ADHD rating scales and the Barrat impulsiveness scale. Also we used the Shorter Promise Questionnaire. This is a 16 scale self-report instrument to measure an individual's level of addictive tendency.
The 36.4% were at high risk of developing a food addiction. For binge eating disorder (BE), no statistically significant differences were found by gender within patients with ADHD.
Binge eating was significantly related to the impulsivity and emotional liability subscale of the CAARS (P < 0.05). The risk of develop BE in ADHD was 4.7 (CI 95% 1.8–12.07). Binge eating was significantly related to the total score on the Barrat scale (P < 0.05) Risk of 3,5 (CI 95% 1.5–7.9) and within the subtypes of impulsivity, motor impulsiveness was the one that was significantly related to BE (P < 0.001)
There is a clear relationship between impulsiveness symptoms and BE in patients with ADHD. It's important to note that there are no gender differences within ADHA patients to develop a BE disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This chapter combines two very different but intimately related texts. On the one hand, it reproduces three dalits, devotional poems by Tagalog natives praising the work of Catholic missionaries. On the other, it provides a questionnaire from an eighteenth-century confessional manual used by missionaries to administer the sacrament of Penance. Vicente L. Rafael argues that each text embodies a different attitude toward the written word in the religious life of the colonial Philippines. For the Tagalog authors of the dalits, the book becomes a magical talisman of sorts. For the missionaries, it provides the tactics of an intimate disciplinary strategy meant to alter the behavior of Filipino natives.
Keywords: Filipino poetry; colonial religion; culture of the book; biopolitics
The documents below consist of two kinds of writing: a series of dalit—a kind of devotional poetry praising the works of missionaries written by Tagalog natives—and an excerpt from a bilingual confessional manual by a Franciscan friar typical of guides used by Spanish priests to aid them in hearing the confessions of native converts. Both sets of documents were published in the Philippines during the early part of Spanish colonial rule between the late sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth centuries. In trying to understand these texts, we might begin by asking: what is relationship between the discourses of devotion and the practice of confession?
In the vernacular devotional poems, praise is directed to the book itself. Referred to by the Spanish word libro or by the vernacular term, sulat by the Tagalog poets, the book comes across as the object of esteem radiating a kind of magical power. For this reason, it was a source of great fascination and attachment for native converts. This intense fascination may have to do with the novelty of the book as such: the very first book published in the Philippines after all was the Doctrina Christiana (1593), a catechism that contained a confessional manual. In the printed books introduced by the Spanish missionaries, Latin letters replaced the native baybayin script.
Obtain and analyze information on treatment guidelines, with particular emphasis on the use of antipsychotics, in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder I and bipolar disorder II who are treated at a mental health center in a district of Madrid (Spain) under the conditions of habitual clinical practice.
Then, compare with recently published literature.
We performed a descriptive study of a sample of 100 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (type I and type II) at any stage of the disease who receive regular treatment in a mental health center in a district of Madrid. Information regarding the treatment used, especially the use of antipsychotics (either in a single therapy or in combination with other drugs such as mood stabilizers, antidepressants, hypnotics or anxiolytics), was collected retrospectively from the data obtained from the medical record.
Ninety-four percent of patients are taking mood stabilizer treatment (68% lithium, 24% valproate, 1% and 1% carbamazepine and lamotrigine). Four percent take lithium and valproate in combination. Forty-eight percent of patients are taking some antipsychotic (atypical about 90%). Of these, only 10% in injectable form, and 5% take both oral and injectable antipsychotics.
The diminished use of injectable antipsychotics, well below recent publications, draws the attention. You can probably explain this low proportion of injectable medication because we are generally dealing with stable patients with a long-term disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The regrowth of a C3 forage Stylosanthes capitata in a rain-fed field provided the weekly data collection in the southeast of Brazil during a heat event in autumn. A system named Trop-T-FACE simulated the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment and the enhanced temperature in four climatic regimes: current atmospheric conditions (Control), CO2 enrichment (600 ppm, eC), warming (2 °C above ambient canopy temperature, eT), and a combination of eC + eT. The area and biomass of foliage per shoot decreased, and the number of flowers per shoot and flowered ramification increased under single eC treatment besides the increment in palisade parenchyma of leaves. Increased investment in flowering in eC occurred notably when the soil water content was higher than 0.30 m3 m–3. Single eT treatment also impaired the area or biomass of foliage production per shoot, raised the shoot mortality, and promoted the increment of the spongy leaf parenchyma. There was some mitigation of the adverse effects of foliage production of eT or eC in eC + eT, but under this combined treatment, the shoot mortality also increased. Changes in leaf tissues under eC or eT or some mitigation of adverse effects in eC + eT did not offset the constraints on leaf growth per shoot. The harmful impact on foliage production by eC, eT, or eC + eT under rain-fed conditions indicated no advantages for feeding the livestock with the C3 forage S. capitata in expected climate change under field conditions.
In our current moment, authoritarian figures loom large. One of them is Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte. He seems to embody two notions of sovereignty. One is related to law, the other to norms: on the one hand, the power of taking exception to the former, deciding who will live and who will die; on the other hand, the freedom from the limits of the latter by way of dissipation, irresponsibility, and excess. This article explores the double sources of his power with reference to the works of Michel Foucault and Achille Mbembe. While most of Foucault's work has focused on Europe, Mbembe has written about postcolonial conditions in ways that make critical use of Foucault. Drawing from their writings, this article situates Duterte as a “sovereign trickster” who seeks to dominate death while monopolizing laughter. Finally, this article speculates on the comparative usefulness of this figure of the sovereign trickster with regard to President Donald Trump, whose form of tricksterism derives, the author argues, from the tradition of blackface minstrelsy.
We agree with Heyes that an explanation of human uniqueness must appeal to cultural evolution, and not just genes. Her account, though, focuses narrowly on internal cognitive mechanisms. This causes her to mischaracterize human behavior and to overlook the role of material culture. A more powerful account would view cognitive gadgets as spanning organisms and their (shared) environments.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.