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There are many types of approaches for Paraphrase Identification (PI), an NLP task of determining whether a sentence pair has equivalent semantics. Traditional approaches mainly consist of unsupervised learning and feature engineering, which are computationally inexpensive. However, their task performance is moderate nowadays. To seek a method that can preserve the low computational costs of traditional approaches but yield better task performance, we take an investigation into neural network-based transfer learning approaches. We discover that by improving the usage of parameters efficiently for feature-based transfer, our research goal can be accomplished. Regarding the improvement, we propose a pre-trained task-specific architecture. The fixed parameters of the pre-trained architecture can be shared by multiple classifiers with small additional parameters. As a result, the computational cost left involving parameter update is only generated from classifier-tuning: the features output from the architecture combined with lexical overlap features are fed into a single classifier for tuning. Furthermore, the pre-trained task-specific architecture can be applied to natural language inference and semantic textual similarity tasks as well. Such technical novelty leads to slight consumption of computational and memory resources for each task and is also conducive to power-efficient continual learning. The experimental results show that our proposed method is competitive with adapter-BERT (a parameter-efficient fine-tuning approach) over some tasks while consuming only 16% trainable parameters and saving 69-96% time for parameter update.
Development of high-efficiency solar cell modules and new application fields are significant for the further development of photovoltaics (PV) and creation of new clean energy infrastructure based on PV. Especially, development of PV-powered EV applications is desirable and very important for this end. This paper shows analytical results for efficiency potential of various solar cells for choosing candidates of high-efficiency solar cell modules for automobile applications. As a result of analysis, Si tandem solar cells are thought to be some of their candidates. This paper also overviews efficiency potential and recent activities of various Si tandem solar cells such as III-V/Si, II-VI/Si, chalcopyrite/Si, perovskite/Si and nanowire/Si tandem solar cells. The III-V/Si tandem solar cells are expected to have a high potential for various applications because of high efficiency with efficiencies of more than 36% for 2-junction and 42 % for 3-junction tandem solar cells under 1-sun AM1.5 G, lightweight and low-cost potential. Recent results for our 28.2 % efficiency and Sharp’s 33% mechanically stacked InGaP/GaAs/Si 3-junction solar cell are also presented. Approaches to automobile application by using III-V/Si tandem solar cells and static low concentration are presented.
Efficiency potential of crystalline Si solar cells is analyzed by considering external radiative efficiency (ERE), voltage, and fill factor losses. Crystalline Si solar cells have an efficiency potential of more than 28.5% by realizing ERE of 20% from about 5% and normalized resistance of less than 0.05 from around 0.1. Nonradiative recombination losses in single-crystalline and multicrystalline Si solar cells are also discussed. Especially, nonrecombination and resistance losses in multicrystalline Si solar cells are shown to be higher than those of single-crystalline cells. Importance of further improvement of minority-carrier lifetime in crystalline Si solar cells is suggested for further improvement of crystalline Si solar cells. High efficiency of more than 28.5% will be realized by realizing high minority-carrier lifetime of more than 30 ms. Key issues for those ends are reduction in carbon concentration of less than 1 × 1014 cm−3, oxygen precipitated and dislocations even in single-crystalline Si solar cells, and reduction in dislocation density of less than 3 × 103 cm−2 in multicrystalline Si solar cells.
The present status of R&D for various types of solar cells is presented by overviewing research and development projects for solar cells in Japan as the PV R&D Project Leader of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). Developments of high-efficiency solar cells such as 44.4% (under concentration) and 37.9% (under 1-sun) InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 3-junction solar cells by Sharp, 26.6% crystalline Si heterojunction back-contact (HBC) solar cells by Kaneka, 22.3% CIGS solar cells by Solar Frontier have been demonstrated under the NEDO PV R&D Project. 15.0% efficiency has also been attained with 1 cm2 perovskite solar cell by NIMS under the JST Project. This article also presents analytical results for efficiency potential of high-efficiency solar cells based on external radiative efficiency (ERE), open-circuit voltage loss and fill factor loss. Crystalline Si solar cells, GaAs, III–V compound 3-junction and 5-junction, CIGSe, and CdTe solar cells have efficiency potential of 28.5%, 29.7%, 42%, 43%, 26.5%, and 26.5% under 1-sun condition, respectively, by improvements in ERE.
Efficient water desalination constitutes a major challenge for the next years and reverse osmosis membranes will play a key role to achieve this target. In this work, a high-performance reverse osmosis nanocomposite membrane was prepared by interfacial polymerization in presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The effect of carbon nanotubes on the chlorine resistance, antifouling and desalination performance of the nanocomposite membranes was studied. We found that the addition of carbon nanotubes not only improved the membrane performance in terms of flow and antifouling, but also inhibited the chlorine degradation of these membranes. Several reports have acknowledged the benefits of adding carbon nanotubes to aromatic PA nanocomposite membranes, but little attention has been paid to the mechanisms related to the improvement of flow rate, selectivity and chlorine tolerance. We carried out a comprehensive study of the chemical and physical effects of carbon nanotubes on the fully crosslinked polyamide network. The chemical structure, chlorine resistance and membrane degradation was studied by several analytical techniques, permeation and fouling studies, whereas the microstructure of the nanocomposite was studied by small and wide angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics. We found that the addition of the nanotube affects the interfacial polymerization, resulting in a polymer network with smaller pore size and higher sodium and chlorine rejection. We simulated the hydration of the membrane in seawater and found that the radial distribution function of water confined in the pores of the nanocomposite membrane exhibited smaller clusters of water molecules, thus suggesting a dense membrane structure. We analysed the network mobility and found that the nanotube provides mechanical stability to the polymer matrix. This study presents solid evidence towards more efficient and robust reverse osmosis membranes using carbon nanotubes as mechanical reinforcing and chlorine protection additive.
TEX101, a glycoprotein we recently identified, is primarily characterized as a unique germ-cell-specific marker protein that shows sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Based on data obtained from molecular biological as well as immuno-morphological studies, we believe this molecule may play a role in the process underlying germ cell formation. However, many points remain unclear as the molecular characteristics and its physiological functions are far from being completely understood. To clarify the molecular basis of TEX101, we herein report a further biochemical characterization of the molecule using testicular Triton X-100 extracts from mice. Deglycosylation studies using endoglycohydrolases that delete N-linked oligosaccharides (OS) from the molecule show that TEX101 is highly (approximately 47%) N-glycosylated. All potential N-glycosylation sites within TEX101 are glycosylated and most of these sites are occupied by endoglycosidase F2-sensitive biantennary complex type OS units. In addition, an extremely low population among TEX101 possesses only endoglycosidase H-sensitive hybrid type OS units. In studies using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C against native testicular cells or TEX101 transfectant, the enzyme treatment caused major reduction of the TEX101 expression on the cell, suggesting that TEX101, at least in part, is expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Taken together, these findings will help elucidate the molecular nature of TEX101, a marker molecule that appeared on germ cells during gametogenesis.
InN films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The InN buffer layers deposited at low temperature were either grown on a substrate with nitridation or on a substrate without nitridation. The InN buffer layers on the nitridated substrates were always single crystalline, whereas the buffer layers on non-nitridated substrates were always polycrystalline. However, even without nitridation process, single crystalline InN films could be grown on the polycrystalline InN buffer layers; in this case, the orientation was always  InN// sapphire epitaxy, which differed from the  InN// sapphire epitaxy in films grown with nitridation.
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 × 1016 cm-3, together with the impact of oxygen on radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center. Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si (which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV
electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or
boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 ×
1016 cm−3, together with the impact of oxygen on
radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects
states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped
Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain
valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects
in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears
to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level
EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center.
Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si
(which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
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