To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the present study, the sub-gap states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films treated with various process conditions have been evaluated by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS). It was found that the space-charge densities of the a-IGZO decreased as the oxygen partial pressure was increased during the sputtering of a-IGZO thin films. The ICTS spectra for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were similar and the peak positions were found to be around 1 × 10-2 s at 180 K. On the other hand, the peak position for the 20 % sample shifted to a longer time regime and was located at around 2 × 10-1 s at 180 K. The total densities of the traps for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were calculated to be 5−6 × 1016 cm-3, while that for 20 % was one order of magnitude lower than the others. From Thermal desorption spectrometer, it was found that desorption of Zn atoms started at a temperature higher than 300 °C for the 4 % sample, while desorption of Zn was not observed for the 20 % sample. The introduction of the sub-gap states could be attributed to oxygen-rich and/or Zn-deficient defects in the a-IGZO thin films formed during thermal annealing.
Polycrystalline diamond films, single crystal bulk diamonds, and diamond powder were treated in microwave plasma of hydrogen at 1.6 torr under a negative direct-current bias of −150 to −300 V without metal catalyst. It was found that fibrous structures, uniformly elongated along the direction normal to the specimen surface, were formed on the diamond surfaces. Similar experiments for glasslike carbon resulted in conical structures with frizzy fibers at the tops. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the fibers formed on diamond consisted of randomly oriented diamond nanocrystals with diameters of less than 10 nm, while the conical structures formed on glasslike carbon consisted of graphite nanocrystals. Field emission measurements of the fibrous specimens exhibited better emission efficiency than untreated ones. The field emission electron microscopy of the fibrous glasslike carbon showed a presence of discrete electron emission sites at a density of approximately 10,000 sites/cm2.
In order to clarify the origin of p-type high-conductivity layers (HCL) near the surfaces of as-grown diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, we have investigated the properties of Schottky junctions fabricated from HCL. The Schottky junctions between Al and HCL of undoped homoepitaxial films with step-flow growth showed high-rectification properties. The forward current-voltage characteristics of the junctions in the temperature range between 83 K and 400 K are found to be described by the thermionic-field emission theory. Analysis indicates that thin enough depletion layer is formed at the junction by a high concentration (∼1018/cm3) of acceptors existing in HCL due to hydrogenation. The origin of HCL is the acceptors related to incorporated hydrogen near the surface.
We found the existence of hydrogen-induced luminescent states in the subsurface region of chemical-vapor-deposited homoepitaxial diamond films by means of cathodoluminescence (CL). A specific broad peak at around 540 nm is observed in both as-deposited diamond films and those treated by hydrogen plasma at 800 °C, but not in conventional oxidized films. The accelerating voltage dependence of the CL spectra indicates that the luminescent states related to the 540 nm peak exist in the surface region and decrease abruptly with increasing the depth from the surface, showing that the depth distribution of the states slightly depends on the hydrogenation duration. Although the 540 nm peak is not observed in the films hydrogenated at 500 °C, it appears once the films are irradiated by an incident electron beam. It indicates the existence of a metastable configuration of hydrogen or its complex forms in the diamond films hydrogenated at low temperatures and a relaxation occurs into a stable one which produces luminescent states by the electron-beam irradiation.
High quality diamond films have been successfully grown, by step-flow, on (001) diamond substrates using an end-launch type chemical vapor deposition reactor. Electrical properties of as-deposited diamond films as well as the surface morphology and the film crystallinity were investigated. Optical and atomic-force microscope images indicated that diamond films consisted of atomically flat terraces and macroscopic steps running parallel to [110×l and 1×2 double-domain structure. The currentvoltage characteristics of Al-Schottky contacts to these step-flow grown diamond films showed excellent rectification properties, indicating the potential of this material for electronic applications.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.