Women show a heightened risk for psychosis in midlife that is not observed in men. The menopausal transition (i.e. perimenopause) and accompanying changes in ovarian hormones are theorized to account for this midlife increase in risk. This narrative review aims to empirically examine these theories by reviewing studies of midlife and perimenopausal psychosis risk in women and potential ovarian hormone mechanisms of effects. Clinical and pre-clinical studies examining the effects of midlife age, menopausal stage, and ovarian hormones across adulthood on psychosis risk were identified. Synthesis of this body of work revealed that the peak ages of midlife psychosis risk in women overlap with the age range of key menopausal stages (especially the perimenopausal transition), although studies directly assessing menopausal stage are lacking. Studies examining ovarian hormone effects have almost exclusively focused on earlier developmental stages and events (e.g. pregnancy, the menstrual cycle) and show increases in psychotic symptoms in women and female rats during periods of lower estradiol levels. Estrogen treatment also tends to enhance the effects of neuroleptics in females across species at various reproductive phases. Initial data are promising in suggesting a role for menopausal stage and ovarian hormones in psychosis risk. However, critical gaps in our knowledge base remain, as there is a tendency to rely on indirect and proxy measures of menopausal status and hormones. Opportunities for future research are discussed with the goal of increasing research in this critical area of women's health.