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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Conventional tests with written information used for the evaluation of sign language (SL) comprehension introduce distortions due to the translation process. This fact affects the results and conclusions drawn and, for that reason, it is necessary to design and implement the same language interpreter-independent evaluation tools. Novel web technologies facilitate the design of web interfaces that support online, multiple-choice questionnaires, while exploiting the storage of tracking data as a source of information about user interaction. This paper proposes an online, multiple-choice sign language questionnaire based on an intuitive methodology. It helps users to complete tests and automatically generates accurate, statistical results using the information and data obtained in the process. The proposed system presents SL videos and enables user interaction, fulfilling the requirements that SL interpretation is not able to cover. The questionnaire feeds a remote database with the user answers and powers the automatic creation of data for analytics. Several metrics, including time elapsed, are used to assess the usability of the SL questionnaire, defining the goals of the predictive models. These predictions are based on machine learning models, with the demographic data of the user as features for estimating the usability of the system. This questionnaire reduces costs and time in terms of interpreter dedication, as well as widening the amount of data collected while employing user native language. The validity of this tool was demonstrated in two different use cases.
Discover the nonlinear methods and tools needed to design real-world microwave circuits with this tutorial guide. Balancing theoretical background with practical tools and applications, it covers everything from the basic properties of nonlinear systems such as gain compression, intermodulation and harmonic distortion, to nonlinear circuit analysis and simulation algorithms, and state-of-the-art equivalent circuit and behavioral modeling techniques. Model formulations discussed in detail include time-domain transistor compact models and frequency-domain linear and nonlinear scattering models. Learn how to apply these tools to designing real circuits with the help of a power amplifier design example, which covers all stages from active device model extraction and the selection of bias and terminations, through to performance verification. Realistic examples, illustrative insights and clearly conveyed mathematical formalism make this an essential learning aid for both professionals working in microwave and RF engineering and graduate students looking for a hands-on guide to microwave circuit design.
Assessing energy requirements is a fundamental activity in clinical dietetic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate which resting energy expenditure (REE) predictive equations are the best alternatives to indirect calorimetry before and after an interdisciplinary therapy in Brazilian obese women. In all, twelve equations based on weight, height, sex, age, fat-free mass and fat mass were tested. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. The interdisciplinary therapy consisted of nutritional, physical exercise, psychological and physiotherapy support during the course of 1 year. The average differences between measured and predicted REE, as well as the accuracy at the ±10 % level, were evaluated. Statistical analysis included paired t tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots. Validation was based on forty obese women (BMI 30–39·9 kg/m2). Our major findings demonstrated a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid, obese women. The equations reported by Harris–Benedict and FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) were the only ones that did not show significant differences compared with indirect calorimetry and presented a bias <5 %. The Harris–Benedict equation provided 40 and 47·5 % accurate predictions before and after therapy, respectively. The FAO equation provided 35 and 47·5 % accurate predictions. However, the Bland–Altman analysis did not show good agreement between these equations and indirect calorimetry. Therefore, the Harris–Benedict and FAO/WHO/UNU equations should be used with caution for obese women. The need to critically re-assess REE data and generate regional and more homogeneous REE databases for the target population is reinforced.
The study of the Bom Santo Cave (central Portugal), a Neolithic cemetery, indicates a complex social, palaeoeconomic, and population scenario. With isotope, aDNA, and provenance analyses of raw materials coupled with stylistic variability of material culture items and palaeogeographical data, light is shed on the territory and social organization of a population dated to 3800–3400 cal BC, i.e. the Middle Neolithic. Results indicate an itinerant farming, segmentary society, where exogamic practices were the norm. Its lifeway may be that of the earliest megalithic builders of the region, but further research is needed to correctly evaluate the degree of this community's participation in such a phenomenon.
The diets of marine predators are a potential source of information about range shifts in their prey. For example, the short-finned squid Illex argentinus, a commercially fished species on the Patagonian Shelf in the South Atlantic, has been reported in the diet of grey-headed, Thalassarche chrysostoma; black-browed, T. melanophris; and wandering, Diomedea exulans, albatrosses breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 28°W) in the Southern Ocean. Tracking data suggest that these birds may feed on I. argentinus while foraging in Southern Ocean waters during their breeding season. This led to the hypothesis that I. argentinus may occur south of the Antarctic Polar Front. To test this hypothesis, we used stable isotope analyses to assess the origin of I. argentinus. We compared I. argentinus beaks from the diets of the three albatross species with beaks of cephalopod species endemic to the Patagonian Shelf and others from the Southern Ocean. Our results show that I. argentinus from the diet of albatrosses at Bird Island have δ13C values in the range −18.77 to −15.28‰. This is consistent with δ13C values for Octopus tehuelchus, a typical species from the Patagonian Shelf. In contrast, Alluroteuthis antarcticus, a Southern Ocean squid, has typically Antarctic δ13C in the range −25.46 to −18.61‰. This suggests that I. argentinus originated from warmer waters of the Patagonian Shelf region. It is more likely that the albatross species obtained I. argentinus by foraging in the Patagonian Shelf region than that I. argentinus naturally occurs south of the Antarctic Polar Front.