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The current definition of dietary fibre was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2009, but implementation requires updating food composition databases with values based on appropriate analysis methods. Previous data on population intakes of dietary fibre fractions are sparse. We studied the intake and sources of total dietary fibre (TDF) and dietary fibre fractions insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), dietary fibre soluble in water but insoluble in 76 % aqueous ethanol (SDFP) and dietary fibre soluble in water and soluble in 76 % aqueous ethanol (SDFS) in Finnish children based on new CODEX-compliant values of the Finnish National Food Composition Database Fineli. Our sample included 5193 children at increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention birth cohort, born between 1996 and 2004. We assessed the intake and sources based on 3-day food records collected at the ages of 6 months, 1, 3 and 6 years. Both absolute and energy-adjusted intakes of TDF were associated with age, sex and breast-feeding status of the child. Children of older parents, parents with a higher level of education, non-smoking mothers and children with no older siblings had higher energy-adjusted TDF intake. IDF was the major dietary fibre fraction in non-breastfed children, followed by SDFP and SDFS. Cereal products, fruits and berries, potatoes and vegetables were major food sources of dietary fibre. Breast milk was a major source of dietary fibre in 6-month-olds due to its human milk oligosaccharide content and resulted in high SDFS intakes in breastfed children.
Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is one of the earliest manifestations of allergic diseases. Early dietary factors, like maternal diet during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases in the offspring. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of CMA in the offspring. Our study was conducted in a population-based cohort, the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study. We collected the maternal dietary data by a validated FFQ. We obtained the information on CMA in the study participants (n 448) from registers and from the parents. Dietary data and information on CMA were available for 4921 children. We used logistic regression in the analyses, and fatty acid intakes were energy adjusted. The maternal intake of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, trans fatty acids, ratio of n-3 PUFA to n-6 PUFA or ratio of linoleic acid to α-linolenic acid was not associated with the risk of CMA in the offspring when adjusted for perinatal factors, background factors, parental history of asthma or allergic rhinitis and infant animal contacts. The intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) of CMA in the offspring of mothers without a history of allergic rhinitis or asthma. In conclusion, the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy is not associated with the risk of CMA in the offspring.
Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in young children, and it is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases. Accordingly, very early environmental factors, such as maternal diet during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of CMA, but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal intake of antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy and the subsequent development of CMA in the offspring in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Maternal dietary information during pregnancy was collected with a detailed, validated FFQ. The maternal dietary information and the information on putative confounding factors were available for 4403 children. Information on diagnosed CMA (n 448) was obtained from a medical registry and queried from the parents up to child’s age of 3 years. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate the average daily intake of nutrients. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses, and the nutrient intakes were adjusted for energy intake. OR are presented per 1 sd increment of the particular nutrient intake. Maternal total and dietary intake of β-carotene was associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring when adjusted for the putative confounding factors (total OR 1·10, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·20; dietary OR 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19). Using dietary supplements containing antioxidants in addition to a balanced diet may not confer any additional benefits.
Several prospective studies have shown an association between cows’ milk consumption and the risk of islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes. We wanted to study whether processing of milk plays a role. A population-based birth cohort of 6081 children with HLA-DQB1-conferred risk to type 1 diabetes was followed until the age of 15 years. We included 5545 children in the analyses. Food records were completed at the ages of 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years, and diabetes-associated autoantibodies were measured at 3–12-month intervals. For milk products in the food composition database, we used conventional and processing-based classifications. We analysed the data using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. By the age of 6 years, islet autoimmunity developed in 246 children. Consumption of all cows’ milk products together (energy-adjusted hazard ratio 1·06; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·003), non-fermented milk products (1·06; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·10; P = 0·011) and fermented milk products (1·35; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·67; P = 0·005) was associated with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity. The early milk consumption was not associated with the risk beyond 6 years. We observed no clear differences based on milk homogenisation and heat treatment. Our results are consistent with the previous studies, which indicate that high milk consumption may cause islet autoimmunity in children at increased genetic risk. The study did not identify any specific type of milk processing that would clearly stand out as a sole risk factor apart from other milk products.
Perinatal exposure to nutrients and dietary components may affect the risk for coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and risk for CD autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in the offspring. Children at increased genetic risk were prospectively followed from birth in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. CDA was defined as having persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Diagnosis of CD was either biopsy-confirmed or considered likely if having persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU. Of 6627 enrolled children, 1136 developed CDA at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9–10) and 409 developed CD at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2–11). Use of supplements containing vitamin D, n-3 FA and Fe was recalled by 66, 17 and 94 % of mothers, respectively, at 3–4 months postpartum. The mean cumulative intake over the entire pregnancy was 2014 μg vitamin D (sd 2045 μg), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8806 mg Fe (sd 7017 mg). After adjusting for country, child’s human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of CD, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox’s proportional hazard ratios did not suggest a statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for CDA or CD. Dietary supplementation during pregnancy may help boost nutrient intake, but it is not likely to modify the risk for the disease in the offspring.
Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study.
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit.
Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden).
Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096).
High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance.
These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.