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The complexity of layered-spinel yLi2MnO3·(1 – y)Li1+xMn2–xO4 (Li:Mn = 1.2:1; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33; y ≥ 0.45) composites synthesized at different temperatures has been investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While the layered component does not change substantially between samples, an evolution of the spinel component from a high to a low lithium excess phase has been traced with temperature by comparing with data for pure Li1+xMn2–xO4. The changes that occur to the structure of the spinel component and to the average oxidation state of the manganese ions within the composite structure as lithium is electrochemically removed in a battery have been monitored using these techniques, in some cases in situ. Our 6Li NMR results constitute the first direct observation of lithium removal from Li2MnO3 and the formation of LiMnO2 upon lithium reinsertion.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance by releasing free fatty acids from adipose triacylglycerol stores. These fatty acids can be subsequently transferred to other body compartments to be oxidized or employed in other biochemical reactions. This enzymic function is particularly important in lactating animals because the synthesis of milk components involves the mobilization of lipid depots to satisfy the large energy demands of the mammary gland. In the current study, we partially sequenced the goat LIPE gene in several individuals. In doing so, we identified two synonymous polymorphisms at exons 2 (c.327C>A>T, triallelic polymorphism) and 3 (c.558C>T). Moreover, we found a mis-sense polymorphism at exon 6 (c.1162G>T) that involves an alanine to serine substitution at position 388. Analysis with Polyphen and Panther softwares revealed that this amino acid replacement is expected to be neutral. Performance of an association analysis with a variety of milk traits revealed that goat LIPE genotype has highly suggestive effects on milk yield (P=0·0032) as well as on C18:3 n-6g (P=0·0051), trans-10 cis-12 CLA (P=0·007) and C12:0 (P=0·0084) milk contents. These associations are concordant with the preference of LIPE to selectively mobilize medium-chain and unsaturated fatty acids.
The layered oxysulfides Sr2MO2Cu2S2 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) consist of alternating perovskite-type Sr2MO2 layers and copper sulfide layers. We studied the electrochemical insertion of Li into these three samples. By this we were able to study the influence of the nature of the transition metal on the Li insertion process which appears to be at least partially reversible. While the Mn compound clearly shows a Cu-Li exchange reaction, the electrochemical process for the two other compounds is more complex. The lithiated materials were studied by 7Li MAS NMR.
The magnetic properties of layered LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 and NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 cathode materials are studied using AC susceptibility and DC magnetization techniques in order to elucidate magnetic interactions within transition metal (TM) layers and between them in samples with various TM distributions. In NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering transition is found at 60 K and a spin-flop transition at high magnetic field. In LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 obtained by ion exchange from NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 ferrimagnetic ordering is found at around 100 K. The saturation magnetization and the hysteresis loop size of ion-exchanged compounds vary from sample to sample, which implies that the Ni2+ ions migrate upon ion exchange process. Magnetic properties of high-temperature and ion-exchanged LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 are compared; magnetic ordering models for all compounds are proposed based on experimental results and Goodenough-Kanamori rules.
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