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Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
Social media platforms allow users to share news, ideas, thoughts, and opinions on a global scale. Data processing methods allow researchers to automate the collection and interpretation of social media posts for efficient and valuable disease surveillance. Data derived from social media and internet search trends have been used successfully for monitoring and forecasting disease outbreaks such as Zika, Dengue, MERS, and Ebola viruses. More recently, data derived from social media have been used to monitor and model disease incidence during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We discuss the use of social media for disease surveillance.
The ongoing pandemic disaster of coronavirus erupted with the first confirmed cases in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) novel coronavirus, the disease referred to as coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed the outbreak and determined it a global pandemic. The current pandemic has infected nearly 300 million people and killed over 3 million. The current COVID-19 pandemic is smashing every public health barrier, guardrail, and safety measure in underdeveloped and the most developed countries alike, with peaks and troughs across time. Greatly impacted are those regions experiencing conflict and war. Morbidity and mortality increase logarithmically for those communities at risk and that lack the ability to promote basic preventative measures. States around the globe struggle to unify responses, make gains on preparedness levels, identify and symptomatically treat positive cases, and labs across the globe frantically rollout various vaccines and effective surveillance and therapeutic mechanisms. The incidence and prevalence of COVID-19 may continue to increase globally as no unified disaster response is manifested and disinformation spreads. During this failure in response, virus variants are erupting at a dizzying pace. Ungoverned spaces where nonstate actors predominate and active war zones may become the next epicenter for COVID-19 fatality rates. As the incidence rates continue to rise, hospitals in North America and Europe exceed surge capacity, and immunity post infection struggles to be adequately described. The global threat in previously high-quality, robust infrastructure health-care systems in the most developed economies are failing the challenge posed by COVID-19; how will less-developed economies and those health-care infrastructures that are destroyed by war and conflict fare until adequate vaccine penetrance in these communities or adequate treatment are established? Ukraine and other states in the Black Sea Region are under threat and are exposed to armed Russian aggression against territorial sovereignty daily. Ukraine, where Russia has been waging war since 2014, faces this specific dual threat: disaster response to violence and a deadly infectious disease. To best serve biosurveillance, aid in pandemic disaster response, and bolster health security in Europe, across the North Atlantic Treaty Alliance (NATO) and Black Sea regions, increased NATO integration, across Ukraine’s disaster response structures within the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Interior must be reinforced and expanded to mitigate the COVID-19 disaster.
The challenge of characterising the subject of this volume is immediately apparent: what do we call him? A plethora of options present themselves: Henry of Blois, Henry of Glastonbury, Henry of Winchester, even Henry of Cluny? Each name relates to a different aspect of this man's life: his noble origins as grandson of William the Conqueror and a child of the count of Blois; his training as an oblate and monk at the great abbey of Cluny; his nomination by his royal uncle, King Henry I, to govern one of the wealthiest abbeys (Glastonbury) and then – in plurality – one of the most prestigious dioceses (Winchester) in the English Church. Having helped orchestrate his brother Stephen's accession to the thone after their uncle's death, Henry would go on to continue the role of kingmaker in the civil war between Stephen and King Henry's daughter Matilda, at the same time as presiding over the English Church in the office of Papal Legate. Later in life, he would come to the rescue of his motherhouse as de facto abbot of Cluny and, once he was back in England again, it would fall to Henry to consecrate Thomas Becket as archbishop of Canterbury. These are just the headline roles of a long and influential life as nobleman, monk, abbot, bishop, legate, and lord.
There are other monikers in contention too. Some differ subtly and reflect the changing fashions of scholarship. Take, for instance, the shifting language of his official biography in the ODNB, where he was first called Henry of Blois in 1891 (by William Hunt) and later Henry de Blois in 2004 (by Edmund King). Other names eschew any semblance of nuance and serve to conjure up the extremes of his character or reputation. According to an anonymous Winchester monk, Henry was a latter-day Cicero; for Bernard of Clairvaux, he was ‘that old whore of Winchester’.
The complex and often contradictory nature of Henry of Blois is famously encapsulated in the language of Henry of Huntingdon's De contemptu mundi. Writing between May 1133 and August 1135, he commented: ‘Now there sits in their place [the previous bishops of Winchester] Henry, nephew of King Henry, who will be a new kind of monster, composed part pure and part corrupt, I mean part monk and part knight’.
The first twenty-two years of Beethoven’s life were spent at the electoral court in Bonn, a formative period significantly under-explored by scholarship. Drawing on extensive documentary and musical evidence, this essay reveals that musical life at the court under Elector Maximilian Franz was one of the most active in Europe, one in which Beethoven was fully absorbed.
The incidence of dementia in Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups is increasing in the UK, with concern about underdiagnosis and late presentation.
By reviewing referrals to memory clinics from Leicester City we examined whether the following differed by ethnicity: the proportion with a diagnosis of dementia, type of dementia and severity at presentation.
We examined referrals between 2010 and 2017: all those whose ethnicity was recorded as Black (n = 131) and a random sample of 260 Asian and 259 White British referrals. Severity of dementia was assessed by record review. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for general practice, age, gender and year of referral.
A diagnosis of dementia was recorded in 193 (74.5%) White British, 96 (73.3%) Black and 160 (61.5%) Asian referrals. Compared with Asians, White British had twice the adjusted odds of a dementia diagnosis (OR = 1.99 (1.23–3.22). Of those with dementia, Alzheimer's disease was more common in White British (57.0%) than in Asian (43.8%) and Black referrals (51.0%): adjusted OR White British versus Asian 1.76 (1.11–2.77). Of those with dementia, the proportion with moderate/severe disease was highest in White British (66.8%), compared with 61.9% in Asian and 45.8% in Black groups. The adjusted OR for the White versus Black groups was 2.03 (1.10–3.72), with no significant difference between Asian and White British groups.
Differences in confirmed dementia suggest general practitioners have a lower threshold for referral for possible dementia in some BAME groups. Unlike other centres, we found no evidence of greater severity at presentation in Asian and Black groups.
Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
It is known that there exists a first-order sentence that holds in a finite group if and only if the group is soluble. Here it is shown that the corresponding statements with ‘solubility’ replaced by ‘nilpotence’ and ‘perfectness’, among others, are false.
These facts present difficulties for the study of pseudofinite groups. However, a very weak form of Frattini’s theorem on the nilpotence of the Frattini subgroup of a finite group is proved for pseudofinite groups.
Budget studies have a long history. Over the centuries, some employers, policy makers and social reformers have had interests in seeing that wage rates and social security systems were sufficient to prevent political disorder and physical and social deprivation among working people. In the UK, first the fluctuating cost of grain for bread and later of a few other basic essentials were identified as key criteria for contemporary class judgements of ‘how much was enough’ for the wages of low-paid workers and their families – those most at risk of suffering the consequences of deprivation or rebelling against them. The non-poor classes identified the social evils of poverty which ought to be philanthropically ameliorated if not actually politically abolished, and that required some criteria of minimum necessities. So when people started to ask ‘how much is enough’, the earliest budget studies were developed as systematic means of listing the components of minimum sufficiency. What this book very helpfully does is to show the current state of budget studies research around the world and its relevance to the general question: if the objective is to combat or prevent poverty, how much is enough personal disposable income?
Posing the issue in historical perspective shows how important this book is today in showing the disparate and often conflicting objectives for which budget studies are nowadays carried out. As a member of Peter Townsend and Brian Abel-Smith's team carrying out the first national survey of poverty in the UK in the 1960s, I’m delighted to be asked to introduce this volume. At that time we had not thought through what has since emerged as the implication of all studies of poverty – that since poverty is a dyadic relationship, we should have paid more attention to mapping what not-poverty is: the adequacy of personal resources for minimally decent inclusion in society. Because we had not sufficiently distinguished adequacy standards from poverty, the indicators we drew from pilot studies of what a normal inclusive life might or ought to include (such as being able to choose a cooked breakfast) were wrongly treated by some readers as our prescribed minimum necessities for poor people. We were counting people who seriously lacked resources for social inclusion, unlike those composing budgets in the earlier post-Seebohm Rowntree period who earnestly sought the lowest family incomes on which minimum dietary necessities could be obtained.
We aimed to explore access by Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) elders to the memory services in Leicester and Leicestershire, examining any trends over time. We then compared the odds of referral by ethnicity, using observed versus expected referrals for the city of Leicester. We gathered data on a comprehensive county-wide memory clinic used by people with suspected dementia and memory problems from the Trust electronic record system during the period 2011–2017. For Leicester city, we compared referral rates for 2011–2017 and compared observed and expected referral rates with demographics from the UK Census 2011.
In Leicester, there was a significant underrepresentation of referrals from the BAME population as compared with the White population in 2011, 2012 and 2013, when compared with population estimates of those aged ≥60 years from the 2011 UK Census Leicester city data. Data for the Black population were too small for comparisons. The odds of being referred to a memory clinic for the White group was double that of the Asian group in 2011 (odds ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.52–3.02) and nearly 1.5 times in 2012 (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.01–1.93). This difference did not persist after 2014. However, this differential odds of referral changes when the age difference between the groups is accounted for. After adjusting for age, there were no differences between the two groups in their odds of referral to the memory clinic from 2011 to 2013, but from 2014 to 2017, members of the Asian group had higher odds of being referred.
The relationship between BAME and access to memory services is complex. The relative lower prevalence of Asian people among referrals to memory services in Leicester from 2011 to 2013 may partly be explained by the lower ages of the Asian population at referral. The higher prevalence of Asian people in 2014–2017 may be owing to use of denominators from the 2011 UK Census, which are likely to be disproportionately low for this group. Further studies are needed to explore any potential barriers to the access of services by BAME communities.
Iron-rich meteorites are significantly underrepresented in collection statistics from Antarctica. This has led to a hypothesis that there is a sparse layer of iron-rich meteorites hidden below the surface of the ice, thereby explaining the apparent shortfall. As standard Antarctic meteorite collecting techniques rely upon a visual surface search approach, the need has thus arisen to develop a system that can detect iron objects under a few tens of centimetres of ice, where the expected number density is of the order one per square kilometre. To help answer this hypothesis, a large-scale pulse induction metal detector array has been constructed for deployment in Antarctica. The metal detector array is 6 m wide, able to travel at 15 km h-1 and can scan 1 km2 in ~11 hours. This paper details the construction of the metal detector system with respect to design criteria, notably the ruggedization of the system for Antarctic deployment. Some preliminary results from UK and Antarctic testing are presented. We show that the system performs as specified and should reach the pre-agreed target of the detection of a 100 g iron meteorite at 300 mm when deployed in Antarctica.
Over the past decade, the World Health Summit (WHS) has provided a global platform for policy-makers and decision-makers to interact with academics and practitioners on global health. Recently the WHS adopted health security into their agenda for transnational disease risks (eg, Ebola and antimicrobial resistance) that increasingly threaten multiple sectors. Global health engagement (GHE) focuses efforts across interdisciplinary and interorganizational lines to identify critical threats and provide rapid deployment of key resources at the right time for addressing health security risks. As a product of subject matter experts convening at the WHS, a special side-group has organically risen with leadership and coordination from the German Institute for Defense and Strategic Studies in support of GHE activities across governmental, academic, and industry partners. Through novel approaches and targeted methodology that maximize outcomes and streamline global health operational process, the Global Health Security Alliance (GloHSA) was born. This short conference report describes in more detail the GloHSA.
Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of boulders on cryoplanation terrace treads and associated bedrock cliff faces revealed Holocene ages ranging from 0 ± 825 to 8890 ± 1185 yr. The cliffs were significantly younger than the inner treads, which tended to be younger than the outer treads. Radiocarbon dates from the regolith of 3854 to 4821 cal yr BP (2σ range) indicated maximum rates of cliff recession of ~0.1 mm/yr, which suggests the onset of terrace formation before the last glacial maximum. Age, angularity, and size of clasts, together with planation across bedrock structures and the seepage of groundwater from the cliff foot, all support a process-based conceptual model of cryoplanation terrace development in which frost weathering leads to parallel cliff recession and, hence, terrace extension. The availability of groundwater during autumn freezeback is viewed as critical for frost wedging and/or the growth of segregation ice during prolonged winter frost penetration. Permafrost promotes cryoplanation by providing an impermeable frost table beneath the active layer, focusing groundwater flow, and supplying water for sediment transport by solifluction across the tread. Snow beds are considered an effect rather than a cause of cryoplanation terraces, and cryoplanation is seen as distinct from nivation.
In the nineteenth century Roman Catholic orthodoxy (right belief) was defined by Scripture (the Bible), Catholic tradition, and, since 1870, the magisterium of the papal office. Eastern Orthodox Christianity was also characterised by the authority of Scripture and tradition, but it was only gradually affected by the conflicts that are the subject matter of this chapter. In Protestantism, for which Scripture was the ultimate authority, orthodoxy was defined by early Christian creeds (shared with Catholic tradition) and by confessions of the Reformation period.
Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
Privatization is closely associated with the ideological turn to neoliberalism and regarded as a cornerstone of Britain’s “Thatcherite project.” Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government did not undertake its major privatizations of state-owned businesses until its second term began in 1983. We argue in this article, however, that the 1980 disposal by the National Enterprise Board of its controlling interest in the engineering and electronics company Ferranti offers significant insights into the development of privatization policy and practice, as well as the changing role of the state in British business. This disposal reflected the early caution of some of the Thatcher government’s actions but contributed to fulfillment of an electoral commitment and provided valuable privatization experience in addressing difficult financial, industrial, and political issues.
This research explores media reporting of Indigenous students’ Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results in two national and 11 metropolitan Australian newspapers from 2001 to 2015. Of almost 300 articles on PISA, only 10 focused on reporting of Indigenous PISA results. While general or non-Indigenous PISA results featured in media reports, especially at the time of the publication of PISA results, there was overwhelming neglect of Indigenous results and the performance gap. A thematic analysis of articles showed mainstream PISA reporting had critical commentary which is not found in the Indigenous PISA articles. The three themes identified include: a lack of teacher quality in remote and rural schools; the debate on Gonski funding recommendations and the PISA achievement gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. This study concluded the overwhelming neglect is linked to media bias, which continues to drive mainstream media coverage of Indigenous Australians.