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Research has shown that 20–30% of prisoners meet the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate reduces ADHD symptoms, but effects in prisoners are uncertain because of comorbid mental health and substance use disorders.
To estimate the efficacy of an osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) in reducing ADHD symptoms in young adult prisoners with ADHD.
We conducted an 8-week parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of OROS-methylphenidate versus placebo in male prisoners (aged 16–25 years) meeting the DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. Primary outcome was ADHD symptoms at 8 weeks, using the investigator-rated Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS-O). Thirteen secondary outcomes were measured, including emotional dysregulation, mind wandering, violent attitudes, mental health symptoms, and prison officer and educational staff ratings of behaviour and aggression.
In the OROS-methylphenidate arm, mean CAARS-O score at 8 weeks was estimated to be reduced by 0.57 points relative to the placebo arm (95% CI −2.41 to 3.56), and non-significant. The responder rate, defined as a 20% reduction in CAARS-O score, was 48.3% for the OROS-methylphenidate arm and 47.9% for the placebo arm. No statistically significant trial arm differences were detected for any of the secondary outcomes. Mean final titrated dose was 53.8 mg in the OROS-methylphenidate arm.
ADHD symptoms did not respond to OROS-methylphenidate in young adult prisoners. The findings do not support routine treatment with OROS-methylphenidate in this population. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of higher average dosing and adherence to treatment, multi-modal treatments and preventative interventions in the community.
Johannesburg was still a brash mining town, better known for the production of wealth than knowledge, and the University of the Witwatersrand a mere ten years old when, in 1932, these ten lectures were delivered under the auspices of the University Philosophical Society. They portrayed the ideas of the university's leading academics of the day, and the programme of lectures reveals a studied effort to introduce an element of bipartisan political representation between English and Afrikaner in South Africa by including Wits' first principal, Jan Hofmeyr, and politician, D.F. Malan, as discussion chairs. Yet, no black intellectuals were represented and, indeed, the politics of racial segregation bursts through the text only in a few of the contributions. For the most part, race is alluded to only in passing. As Saul Dubow explains in his new introduction to this re-issue of the lectures, Our Changing World-View was an occasion for Wits' leading faculty members to position the young university as a mature institution with a leadership role in public affairs. Above all, it was a means to project the university as a research as well as a teaching institution, led by a vigorous and ambitious cohort of liberal-minded intellectuals. That all were male and white will be immediately apparent to readers of this reissued volume. Ranging from economics, psychology, a spurious rebuttal of evolution to a substantial revisionist history and the perils of the 'machine age', this book is a sombre reflection of intellectual history and the academy's role in promulgating political and social divisions in South Africa.
Infants with complex cyanotic CHD can become symptomatic from insufficient pulmonary blood supply following either ductal closure or due to outflow tract obstruction. Blalock–Taussig shunt mortality remains significant and recent studies have highlighted the advantages of using transcatheter alternatives. We present here our experience in changing our primary choice of palliation from the Blalock–Taussig shunt to transcatheter palliation with either a ductal stent or, if antegrade flow is present, a right ventricular outflow tract stent.
This is a retrospective, single-unit cohort study. Eighty-seven infants underwent palliation for insufficient pulmonary blood flow at under 3 months of age between 2012 and 2019. On an intention-to-treat basis, 29 underwent insertion of a Blalock–Taussig shunt, 36 duct stents, and 22 right ventricular outflow tract stents at median ages of 15, 9, and 32 days, respectively, and median weights of 3.3, 3.1, and 3.1 kg, respectively. No primary Blalock–Taussig shunts have been performed in our institution since 2017.
At 30-days there had been one death in each group (univariable p = 0.93) and deaths prior to repair totalled three in the shunt group, four in the ductal stent group, and two in the right ventricular outflow tract stent group (univariable p = 0.93). Reintervention on the pulmonary circuit prior to next stage of surgery was more frequent in those undergoing transcatheter intervention, reaching statistical significance by logrank (p = 0.012).
In conclusion, within this work we provide further evidence of the safety and efficacy of transition from a primary surgical to primary transcatheter palliation pathway in infants with insufficient pulmonary blood supply.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
I have had the privilege to be a tutor, and latterly Associate Tutor, for the Field Studies Council for 37 years, and counting (Archer-Thomson and Cremona, 2019). In this time, I have introduced groups to the wonders of the coastal zone, namely, offshore islands, saltmarshes, sand dunes, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, cliff tops and the sublittoral and, in particular, rocky shores. The latter, in my opinion, is one of the most fascinating, biodiverse and downright weird habitats available for study anywhere and it has the additional merit, especially in a British context, of being natural, at least in the main.
The Fontan procedure is the final stage of surgical palliation for a single-ventricle circulation. Significant complications are common including rhythm disturbance necessitating implantation of a permanent pacemaker. This has been widely considered a negative prognostic indicator.
This single-centre, retrospective case control study involved all patients who underwent the Fontan procedure at the Leeds Congenital Heart Unit between 1990 and 2015 and have had regular follow-up in Yorkshire and Humber, United Kingdom. 167 Fontan patients were identified of which 2 were excluded for having a pre-procedure pacemaker. Of the remainder, 23 patients required a pacemaker. Outcomes were survival, early and late complications, need for further intervention and oxygen saturation in long-term follow-up.
There was no difference in survival (30-day survival pacemaker 92.6%, sinus rhythm 90.5%, p = 0.66, 1-year pacemaker 11.1%, sinus rhythm 10.1%, p = 1). The pacemaker group was more likely to have cerebral or renal complications in the first-year post-procedure (acute kidney injury: sinus rhythm 0.8%, pacemaker 19.1%, p = 0.002). No difference was observed in longer term complications including protein losing enteropathy (sinus rhythm 3.5%, pacemaker 0% p = 1). There was no difference in saturations between the two groups at follow-up. Paced patients were more likely to have required further intervention, with a higher incidence of cardiopulmonary bypass procedures (sinus rhythm 6.3%, pacemaker 35%, p < 0.001).
Despite an increase in early complications and the need for further interventions, pacemaker requirement does not appear to affect long-term survival following the Fontan procedure.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
The objectives of this study were to describe the approach to stenting arterial shunts in adult congenital patients with single-ventricle physiology and to assess the medium-term clinical and haemodynamic outcomes following stent insertion.
Adult patients with single-ventricle physiology and pulmonary blood flow dependent on a surgically placed arterial shunt who did not progress to venous palliation are extremely challenging to manage. Progressive cyanosis secondary to narrowing of the shunt has a marked impact on exercise tolerance and results in intolerable well-being for these patients. Stenting arterial shunts in adult patients is one method that can help improve pulmonary blood flow. There is very limited information in the literature about this patient.
This is a retrospective study for arterial shunts stenting conducted between 2008 and 2016. The peripheral oxygen saturations, the NYHA status, the haemoglobin, and the degree of atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation as assessed on transthoracic echo were compared before and 6–12 months after procedures.
There was a short-term improvement in oxygen saturations; the pre-procedure mean was 75.8 (SD 2.55)% (range 70–85%) and post-procedure mean was 83 (SD 2.52)% (range 78–87%), with a p value of 0.04. Haemoglobin level decreased from a pre-procedure mean of 22.06–20.28 g/L 6 months post procedure (range 18.1–24.4 to 13–23.3 g/L), with a p value of 0.44. NYHA class decreased from a mean of 3.2–2.2 post procedure. Left atrial volume for four of the cases did not change (22.6–76.6 ml [mean 48.4 ml] to 29.6–72.9 ml [mean 52 ml], p value: 0.83).
Stenting stenotic arterial shunts is a useful method to gain a medium-term improvement on the oxygen saturation and clinical symptoms, and may act as a useful intermediate step for further management plans.
A modern catheter laboratory for the treatment of children with CHD should be in close proximity to the paediatric ICU, operating theatres, and imaging facilities. Space requirements and equipment for an up-to-date catheter laboratory are discussed. The document was endorsed by the council of the Association of European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiologists.
Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as ‘costs’, ‘risks’, ‘needs’ and ‘values’. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of ‘risk’ and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of ‘single-issue mythologies’ in describing and accounting for change.
Is diversity of population, belief or culture good or bad? There is no consensus on this point, nor has there ever been. Almost by definition, diversity is implicit in empire. Yet empires tend to fall in pieces because of disunity. For nationalists, diversity is generally undesirable and has sometimes been persecuted. If moral issues bulk so large as to make intolerance a virtue, diversity appears evil. But if cultural, particularly artistic, fertility is the objective, the evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of diversity. Diversity implies compromise. Compromise is good if it resolves disputes but is of dubious value if it merely papers over divisions, which later break forth more strongly.
In the South Asia of the twenty-first century it is not useful and might indeed be dangerous to promote diversity or alternatively to seek to reduce it. So much depends upon what sort of diversity is at stake and upon the quality of the ideas supporting it. This essay deals with a few of the diversities, particularly economic, cultural and religious, as they affect India and Pakistan. A brighter South Asian future requires, foremost, a deal between these two primary parties. Yet, the inevitable political difficulties involved could be reduced if both parties know that they will be able to present a compromise in the context of a wider South Asian plan for the future.
To report outcomes and late toxicity for a hypofractionated dose-escalated radiotherapy schedule in patients treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for localised prostate cancer.
Materials and methods
Eighty-eight men with localised prostate cancer were treated with 57 Gy in 19 daily fractions over 4 weeks. A total of 70 out of 88 had high-risk disease. Overall survival, cause-specific survival and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS, Phoenix definition) were reported. Toxicity was measured retrospectively using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and assessed prospectively with a validated Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) patient questionnaire.
At 5 years, overall survival was 84%, cause-specific survival 88% and bPFS 65%. In patients with high-risk disease, 5-year bPFS was 62%. There was no RTOG toxicity above grade III. LENT/SOMA questionnaires were returned by 74% patients. Median scores for bowel and urinary function were <1. Maximum bowel and urinary toxicity scores ≥2 were reported by 64% and 59% of patients, respectively. The median score for sexual function was 1·5, but nearly all (96%) patients recorded a toxicity score ≥2 for at least one question.
Dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy delivered using IMRT has promising outcomes and acceptable late toxicity. This fractionation schedule is being compared with conventional treatment within an on-going multicentre phase III clinical trial.