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A basic framework for classifying institutions and thinking about their role in economic development is illustrated with the colonial experience of the British and Spanish empires in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and Japan in the nineteenth century. Institutions are the ‘rules of the game’. Primary rules are rules that apply directly to individuals and their relationships. Secondary rules are the ‘rules for making the rules’. The secondary rules governing the Spanish Empire located the procedures for making new rules and changing existing rules in negotiations with the king. Secondary rules in the British Empire located many of the processes for making new rules in the colonies themselves. Faced with independence and the end of monarchical rule in the late eighteenth and early ninteenth century, the institutions in the former Spanish colonies had to be reinvented from whole cloth, as the basic structure of secondary rules was no longer viable. In the British North American colonies, secondary rules allocating authority to colonial legislatures remained in place and were gradually transformed after independence. Japan, in contrast, wrestled with how to structure secondary rules in the events leading up to and following the Meiji Restoration.
To understand how the different data collections methods of the Alberta Health Services Infection Prevention and Control Program (IPC) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) are affecting reported rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip replacements (THRs) and total knee replacements (TKRs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Four hospitals in Alberta, Canada.
Those with THR or TKR surgeries between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018.
Demographic information, complex SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared and then IPC and NSQIP data were matched with percent agreement and Cohen’s κ calculated. Statistical analysis was performed for age, gender and complex SSIs. A P value <.05 was considered significant.
In total, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients were compared. The complex SSI rate for NSQIP was higher compared to IPC (THR: 1.19 vs 0.68 [P = .147]; TKR: 0.92 vs 0.80 [P = .682]). After matching, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC, and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.0; κ = 0.48).
Different approaches to monitor SSIs may lead to different results and trending patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are consistently higher than IPC. If systems are compared at any point in time, confidence on the data may be eroded. Stakeholders need to be aware of these variations and education provided to facilitate an understanding of differences and a consistent approach to SSI surveillance monitoring over time.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
In March 2020, the State of Louisiana opened an alternative care site at the New Orleans Convention Center, known as the Medical Monitoring Station (MMS). The facility was designed, constructed, and staffed to serve a population with basic medical needs as they recovered from COVID-19. As the MMS prepared to open, local hospitals indicated a greater need for assistance with patients requiring a higher acuity of care and populations unable to be discharged due to infection risks. In response to this, the capabilities of the facility were altered to accommodate primarily elderly patients, with significant comorbidities, requiring extensive care. This manuscript presents the demographics of the first 250 patients seen at the MMS, and describes the most critical policies/protocols, interventions, and resources that proved successful in adjusting to effectively serve its population.
Understanding the physical structure of greases can provide critical insight into improving the lubricating performance of a grease. Observation of the grease structure can be quite difficult depending on the type of grease and the length scale of the structure. Polyurea greases in previous reports have typically been examined by removal of the oil phase, which significantly changes the polyurea structure. This paper examines the effect of sample preparation conditions on the microstructure of polyurea greases. This study reveals new structures in the polyurea that have not been observed in the previous literature, including entangled fibers and nanotubes. Correlation is found between the observed polyurea microstructure coverage and grease stiffness.
An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
An experimental investigation using stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) was performed to study the vortex dynamics of an aspect ratio 13 rectangular orifice synthetic jet issuing into quiescent fluid. Data were obtained on the orifice centreline planes for four Reynolds numbers and five Strouhal numbers, ranging from 298 to 731 and 0.039 to 0.100, respectively. At one condition, SPIV data obtained on parallel planes distributed across the width of the jet were used to reconstruct the three-dimensional, three-component velocity field. The results reveal that the axis switching deformations of the non-circular vortex rings give rise to several types of secondary structures. Before the primary vortex ring completed its first axis switch, the anti-parallel sides of the ring collided, resulting in vorticity reconnection. Consequently, the elongated vortex ring bifurcated into two circular vortex rings which propagated off along independent paths. The development and structure of vortex ring bifurcation in addition to the bifurcation's effect on the jet shape, momentum and entrainment are presented. The bifurcation process captured in the synthetic jet experiment is similar in many ways to computational simulations of isolated vortex rings. Despite these similarities and the fact that vortex ring bifurcation was detected for all conditions tested, it is shown that the bifurcation process is sensitive to the unique conditions in synthetic jets, specifically the proximity of other vortex rings as indicated by the Strouhal number. Finally, the results at different jet conditions are discussed in relation to prior studies of synthetic jets.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) are reported using 2 data sources: infection prevention and control (IPC), which surveys all THR and TKR using NHSN definitions and the Canadian International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CA) codes, and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses a systematic sampling process that involves an 8-day cycle schedule, modified NHSN definitions and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. We compared the similarities and discrepancies in THR/TKR SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP THR/TKR SSI data at 4 hospitals was performed. SSI data were collected between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. Demographic information and complex and total SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared for both THR and TKR surgeries. To determine whether both data sources reported similar trends over time, total SSIs by quarter were compared. Univariate analyses using a t test for age and the χ2 test for gender for complex SSIs and total SSIs was performed. The Pearson correlation and the Shapiro-Wilk test were used to assess the THR and TKR trends between the 2 data sources. A P value of <.05 was considered significant. Results: Following the removal of duplicates and missing data, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, were compared. Age, gender, and other demographic parameters were not significantly different. Total THR and TKR SSIs per 100 procedures using NSQIP data were significantly higher than the same rates using IPC data: THR, 2.25 versus 0.92 (P < .05) and TKR, 3.43 versus 1.26 (P < .05). Both IPC and NSQIP data indicated increasing total THR SSI rates over time, but with different magnitudes (r = 0.658). For total TKR SSI, the IPC rate decreased, whereas the NSQIP rate increased over the same period (r = 0.374). When superficial SSIs were excluded, the rates reported between IPC and NSQIP data by hospital and by procedure type were more comparable, with trends toward higher rates reported by NSQIP for THR than for TKR: THR, 1.19 versus 0.68 (P = 0.15) and TKR, 0.92 versus 0.80 (P = .68). Conclusions: Different approaches used to monitor SSIs following surgeries may lead to different results and trend patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are significantly higher than the IPC Alberta orthopedic population predominantly as a result of increased identification of superficial SSIs. Because the diagnosis of superficial SSIs may be less reliable, SSI reporting should focus on complex infections.
Background: Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) rates are highly variable over time, posing problems for research assessing interventions that might improve rates. By understanding seasonality in HA-CDI rates and the impacts that other factors such as influenza admissions might have on these rates, we can account for them when establishing the relationship between interventions and infection rates. We assessed whether there were seasonal trends in HA-CDI and whether they could be accounted for by influenza rates. Methods: We assessed HA-CDI rates per 10,000 patient days, and the rate of hospitalized patients with influenza per 1,000 admissions in 4 acute-care facilities (n = 2,490 beds) in Calgary, Alberta, from January 2016 to December 2018. We used 4 statistical approaches in R (version 3.5.1 software): (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) to assess dependencies and trends in each of the monthly HA-CDI and influenza series; (2) cross correlation to assess dependencies between the HA-CDI and influenza series lagged over time; (3) Poisson harmonic regression models (with sine and cosine components) to assess the seasonality of the rates; and (4) Poisson regression to determine whether influenza rates accounted for seasonality in the HA-CDI rates. Results: Conventional ARIMA approaches did not detect seasonality in the HA-CDI rates, but we found strong seasonality in the influenza rates. A cross-correlation analysis revealed evidence of correlation between the series at a lag of zero (R = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.10–0.65) and provided an indication of a seasonal relationship between the series (Fig. 1). Poisson regression suggested that influenza rates predicted CDI rates (P < .01). Using harmonic regression, there was evidence of seasonality in HA-CDI rates (2 [2 df] = 6.62; P < .05) and influenza rates (2 [2 df] = 1,796.6; P < .001). In a Poisson model of HA-CDI rates with both the harmonic components and influenza admission rates, the harmonic components were no longer predictive of HA-CDI rates. Conclusions: Harmonic regression provided a sensitive means of identifying seasonality in HA-CDI rates, but the seasonality effect was accounted for by influenza admission rates. The relationship between HA-CDI and influenza rates is likely mediated by antibiotic prescriptions, which needs to be assessed. To improve precision and reduce bias, research on interventions to reduce HA-CDI rates should assess historic seasonality in HA-CDI rates and should account for influenza admissions.
Background: Inappropriate prescribing behavior can be associated with higher rates of antibiotic resistance, calling for detailed studies on how physicians make prescribing decisions. We conducted a mixed-methods study to investigate physician antibiotic prescribing behavior in a 141-bed pediatric hospital. Methods: We applied a mixed-methods research design. The quantitative phase was conducted over a 6-month period to identify cases of inappropriate prescribing. The qualitative phase comprised 22 qualitative interviews with clinical teaching units (CTU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) team members (physicians and pharmacists). Two coders analyzed the data deductively using the theoretical domain framework (TDF), as well as the social determinants of antimicrobial prescribing (SDAP). Results: In 52.9% of the 36 identified cases in the CTU and 31.4% of the 37 cases in the PICU, an infectious diseases (ID) consultation occurred. Compliance rates with ID recommendations were 79% and 91% in the CTU and PICU, respectively. The CTU and PICU expressed appreciation for ID involvement when ID supported their de-escalation choices in complex cases and in cases in which less commonly known antibiotics were used. However, the ID service involvement was perceived as detrimental to antimicrobial prescribing decisions for CTU and PICU across 3 of the 4 SDAP domains (Fig. 1, qualitative research quotes). Relationship between clinicians: CTU physicians and pharmacists perceived ID involvement as negatively impacting the relationship of the team. Antimicrobial decisions were automatically defaulted to ID, whereas pharmacy involvement was disregarded and the decisions were delayed. Risk, fear, and emotion: These were experienced across all respondents’ groups that identified ID specialists’ egos and personalities as contrary to open collaborative discussion on antimicrobial decisions. (Mis)perception of the problem: ID physicians were identified as more conservative in their antimicrobial choices, leading to prolonged duration of treatment, broader choices, and longer hospitalizations. The CTU and pharmacy respondents felt that ID recommendations were inconsistent among physicians and deviated from guidelines with little justification. Conclusions: Although CTU and PICU teams tend to comply with ID prescribing recommendations and ID involvement with complicated cases, pharmacists, CTU physicians, and PICU physicians perceived ID consultations to negatively affect collaborative efforts for stewardship. These findings offer novel insights into how an ID service can improve its role to positively affect appropriate prescribing. CTU and PICU respondents called for a supportive and trusting relationship with the ID service as a major driver for behavioral change and enhanced stewardship.
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Long-term national MRSA BSI surveillance establishes rates for internal and external comparison and provide insight into epidemiologic, molecular, and resistance trends. Here, we present and discuss National MRSA BSI incidence rates and trends over time in Canadian acute-care hospitals from 2008 to 2018. Methods: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Programme (CNISP) is a collaborative effort of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since 1995, the CNISP has conducted hospital-based sentinel surveillance of MRSA BSIs. Data were collected using standardized definitions and forms from hospitals that participate in the CNISP (48 hospitals in 2008 to 62 hospitals in 2018). For each MRSA BSI identiﬁed, the medical record was reviewed for clinical and demographic information and when possible, 1 blood-culture isolate per patient was submitted to a central laboratory for further molecular characterization and susceptibility testing. Results: From 2008 to 2013, MRSA BSI rates per 10,000 patient days were relatively stable (0.60–0.56). Since 2014, MRSA BSI rates have gradually increased from 0.66 to 1.05 in 2018. Although healthcare-associated (HA) MRSA BSI has shown a minimal increase (0.40 in 2014 to 0.51 in 2018), community-acquired (CA) MRSA BSI has increased by 150%, from 0.20 in 2014 to 0.50 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Laboratory characterization revealed that the proportion of isolates identified as CMRSA 2 (USA 100) decreased each year, from 39% in 2015 to 28% in 2018, while CMRSA 10 (USA 300) has increased from 41% to 47%. Susceptibility testing shows a decrease in clindamycin resistance from 82% in 2013 to 41% in 2018. Conclusions: Over the last decade, ongoing prospective MRSA BSI surveillance has shown relatively stable HA-MRSA rates, while CA-MRSA BSI rates have risen substantially. The proportion of isolates most commonly associated with HA-MRSA BSI (CMRSA2/USA 100) are decreasing and, given that resistance trends are tied to the prevalence of specific epidemic types, a large decrease in clindamycin resistance has been observed. MRSA BSI surveillance has shown a changing pattern in the epidemiology and laboratory characterization of MRSA BSI. The addition of hospitals in later years that may have had higher rates of CA-MRSA BSI could be a confounding factor. Continued comprehensive national surveillance will provide valuable information to address the challenges of infection prevention and control of MRSA BSI in hospitals.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Probiotics have been studied as a measure to prevent CDI. Timely probiotic administration to at-risk patients receiving systemic antimicrobials presents significant challenges. We sought to determine optimal implementation methods to administer probiotics to all adult inpatients aged 55 years receiving a course of systemic antimicrobials across an entire health region. Methods: Using a randomized stepped-wedge design across 4 acute-care hospitals (n = 2,490 beds), the probiotic Bio-K+ was prescribed daily to patients receiving systemic antimicrobials and was continued for 5 days after antimicrobial discontinuation. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to identify barriers, and the implementation strategy was adapted to address the key identified barriers. The implementation strategy included clinical decision support involving a linked flag on antibiotic ordering and a 1-click order entry within the electronic medical record (EMR), provider and patient education (written/videos/in-person), and local site champions. Protocol adherence was measured by tracking the number of patients on therapeutic antimicrobials that received BioK+ based on the bedside nursing EMR medication administration records. Adherence rates were sorted by hospital and unit in 48- and 72-hour intervals with recording of percentile distribution of time (days) to receipt of the first antimicrobial. Results: In total, 340 education sessions with >1,800 key stakeholders occurred before and during implementation across the 4 involved hospitals. The overall adherence of probiotic ordering for wards with antimicrobial orders was 78% and 80% at 48 and 72 hours, respectively over 72 patient months. Individual hospital adherence rates varied between 77% and 80% at 48 hours and between 79% and 83% at 72 hours. Of 246,144 scheduled probiotic orders, 94% were administered at the bedside within a median of 0.61 days (75th percentile, 0.88), 0.47 days (75th percentile, 0.86), 0.71 days (75th percentile, 0.92) and 0.67 days (75th percentile, 0.93), respectively, at the 4 sites after receipt of first antimicrobial. The key themes from the focus groups emphasized the usefulness of the linked flag alert for probiotics on antibiotic ordering, the ease of the EMR 1-click order entry, and the importance of the education sessions. Conclusions: Electronic clinical decision support, education, and local champion support achieved a high implementation rate consistent across all sites. Use of a 1-click order entry in the EMR was considered a key component of the success of the implementation and should be considered for any implementation strategy for a stewardship initiative. Achieving high prescribing adherence allows more precision in evaluating the effectiveness of the probiotic strategy.
Funding: Partnerships for Research and Innovation in the Health System, Alberta Innovates/Health Solutions Funding: Award
Johanna Blaak, W21C, University of Calgary; Rachel DiMaio, University of Calgary; Julia Kupis, University of Calgary; Ross Sweetzir, Cisco Systems; Conny Betuzzi, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Alberta Health Services; Corey Dowler, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Alberta Health Services; Krista McIntytre, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Alberta Health Services; Jaime Kaufman, University of Calgary; Greg Hallihan, University of Calgary; John Conly, Foothills Medical Centre; Joseph Vayalumkal, Alberta Childrens Hospital
Background: Interaction design offers a novel interventional strategy to enhance hand-hygiene compliance (HHC) and reduce hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in the pediatric setting. A quality improvement initiative in collaboration with the University of Calgary and Alberta Health Services led to the implementation of a pilot project with sensor-embedded alcohol -based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers at a hematology-oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant unit at Alberta Children’s Hospital (ACH). Methods: Internet of things (IoT) sensors were installed in ABHR dispensers (n = 3) on the unit. Usage data were transmitted to a local server using an MQTT messaging protocol for 16 weeks. Real-time data visualization was presented on a central display next to the nursing station with 11 unique pediatric themes including dinosaurs, transportation, and Canadian animals. Data were collected with and without visualization, and frequency of use (FoU) was determined for both periods. Qualitative interviews with unit stakeholders (n = 13) were held to determine perceptions of the intervention. Results: During the first 8 weeks of the study period, the mean daily use without visualization was 47 times (SD, 14.5) versus 99 times (SD, 23.9) with visualization. When accounting for novelty, by removing the first week of data, the mean daily use was 92 (SD 19.6). The percentage increase from period 1 to period 2 was 96.6%, accounting for novelty. Qualitative interviews with stakeholders (n = 13) on the unit indicated that the intervention increased their personal awareness of hand hygiene (75%) and acted as a constant reminder to perform hand hygiene for everyone on the unit including nonclinical staff, patients, and family members (92%). Conclusions: These limited data suggest that interaction design may improve HH frequency and show promise as a tool for increased HH awareness and education. Interaction design provides a unique, innovative, and acceptable hand hygiene improvement strategy for staff, patients, and families in the pediatric inpatient setting.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip and knee replacements (THRs and TKRs) are reported using the infection prevention and control (IPC) surveillance system, which surveys all THRs and TKRs using the NHSN definitions; and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses different definitions and sampling strategies. Deterministic matching of patient data from these sources was used to examine the overlap and discrepancies in SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP superficial, deep, and organ-space THR/TKR SSI data collected 30 days postoperatively from September 1, 2015, to March 31, 2018 was undertaken. To identify patients with procedures captured by both IPC and NSQIP, data were cleaned, duplicates removed, and patients matched 1:1 using year of birth, procedure facility, type, side, date, and time. Positive and negative agreement were assessed, and the Cohen κ values were calculated. The definitions and data capture methods used by both IPC and NSQIP were also compared. Results: There were 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, with 1,798 matched patients: IPC (23.8%) and NSQIP (88.3%). Moreover, 17 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP, including 9 superficial and 8 complex by IPC and 6 superficial and 11 complex by NSQIP. Also, 7 SSIs were identified only by IPC, of which 5 were superficial, and 36 SSIs were identified only by NSQIP, of which 28 were superficial (positive agreement, 0.44; negative agreement, 0.99; κ = .43). Excluding superficial SSIs, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC; and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.00; κ = 0.48). Conclusions: THR/TKR SSI rates reported by IPC and NSQIP were not comparable in this matched dataset. NSQIP identifies more superficial SSIs. Variations in data capture methods and definitions accounted for most of the discordance. Both surveillance systems are critically involved with improving patient outcomes following surgery. However, stakeholders need to be aware of these variations, and education should be provided to facilitate an understanding of the differences and their interpretation. Future work should explore other surgical procedures and larger data sets.
Cognitive deficits at the first episode of schizophrenia are predictive of functional outcome. Interventions that improve cognitive functioning early in schizophrenia are critical if we hope to prevent or limit long-term disability in this disorder.
We completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and of long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone with 60 patients with a recent first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation involved programs focused on basic cognitive processes as well as more complex, life-like situations. Healthy behavior training of equal treatment time was the comparison group for cognitive remediation, while oral risperidone was the comparator for LAI risperidone in a 2 × 2 design. All patients were provided supported employment/education to encourage return to work or school.
Both antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation contributed to cognitive improvement. Cognitive remediation was superior to healthy behavior training in the LAI medication condition but not the oral medication condition. Cognitive remediation was also superior when medication adherence and protocol completion were covaried. Both LAI antipsychotic medication and cognitive remediation led to significantly greater improvement in work/school functioning. Effect sizes were larger than in most prior studies of first-episode patients. In addition, cognitive improvement was significantly correlated with work/school functional improvement.
These results indicate that consistent antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation can significantly improve core cognitive deficits in the initial period of schizophrenia. When combined with supported employment/education, cognitive remediation and LAI antipsychotic medication show separate significant impact on improving work/school functioning.
A control volume based analytical method for calculating the efficiency
of flapping foil power generators was developed for single and tandem foil configurations. Ignoring unsteady effects and non-uniform pressures resulted in theoretical limits identical to the Betz (
for a single turbine) and Newman (
for tandem turbines) limits. Inclusion of unsteady flow and non-uniform pressure distributions produced theoretical efficiency maxima in excess of these limits. Simulation of single and tandem foil cases to determine the magnitude of these effects showed that the Betz limit would not be exceeded by a single foil system in practice, but that it is conceivable that a tandem foil system could exceed the Newman limit due to the strong unsteady vortex wake of the upstream turbine entraining additional energy into the path of the downstream turbine and maintaining pressures in the wake below ambient.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.