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The IntCal family of radiocarbon (14C) calibration curves is based on research spanning more than three decades. The IntCal group have collated the 14C and calendar age data (mostly derived from primary publications with other types of data and meta-data) and, since 2010, made them available for other sorts of analysis through an open-access database. This has ensured transparency in terms of the data used in the construction of the ratified calibration curves. As the IntCal database expands, work is underway to facilitate best practice for new data submissions, make more of the associated metadata available in a structured form, and help those wishing to process the data with programming languages such as R, Python, and MATLAB. The data and metadata are complex because of the range of different types of archives. A restructured interface, based on the “IntChron” open-access data model, includes tools which allow the data to be plotted and compared without the need for export. The intention is to include complementary information which can be used alongside the main 14C series to provide new insights into the global carbon cycle, as well as facilitating access to the data for other research applications. Overall, this work aims to streamline the generation of new calibration curves.
Understanding the relative longevity of different seed lots, perhaps of different species or genotypes, but also following production under different environments or using different cultivation methods, or following different post-harvest treatments, is relevant to anyone concerned with the retention of seed lot viability and vigour during storage. However, different scientists over the years have used different conditions to assess seed lot longevity, as well as different variables as the measure of ‘longevity.’ Here, we give some of the backgrounds to how two standard protocols, with an open and closed system respectively, were derived, and explain why we consider p50, defined as the time during storage when seed lot viability, as measured through a germination test, has declined to 50%, is a suitable longevity trait parameter.
Differentiating mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) from mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) is challenging due to an overlap of symptoms. Quantitative EEG analyses have shown varying levels of diagnostic accuracy, while visual assessment of EEG may be a promising diagnostic method. Additionally, a multimodal EEG-MRI approach may have greater diagnostic utility than individual modalities alone.
To evaluate the utility of (1) a structured visual EEG assessment and (2) a machine learning multimodal EEG-MRI approach to differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
300 seconds of eyes-closed, resting-state EEG from 37 MCI-LB and 36 MCI-AD patients were analysed. EEGs were visually assessed for the presence of diffuse, focal, and epileptiform abnormalities, overall grade of abnormalities and focal rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA). Random forest classifiers to discriminate MCI-LB from MCI-AD were trained on combinations of visual EEG, quantitative EEG and structural MRI features. Quantitative EEG features (dominant frequency, dominant frequency variability, theta/alpha ratio and measures of spectral power in the delta, theta, prealpha, alpha and beta bands) and structural MRI features (hippocampal and insular volumes) were obtained from previous analyses of our dataset.
Most patients had abnormal EEGs on visual assessment (MCI-LB = 91.9%, MCI-AD = 77.8%). Overall grade (Χ2 (73, 2) = 4.416, p = 0.110), diffuse abnormalities Χ2(73,1) = 3.790, p = 0.052, focal abnormalities Χ2 (73,1) = 3.113, p = 0.077 and FIRDA Χ2(73,1) = 0.862, p = 0.353 did not differ between groups. All multimodal classifiers had similar diagnostic accuracy (area underthe curve, AUC = 0.681 - 0.686) to a classifier that used quantitative EEG features only (AUC =0.668). The feature ‘beta power’ had the highest predictive power in all classifiers.
Visual EEG assessment was unable to discriminate between MCI-LB and MCI-AD. However, future work with a more sensitive visual assessment score may yield more promising results.A multimodal EEG-MRI approach does not enhance the diagnostic value of quantitative EEG alone in diagnosing MCI-LB.
Public representations of long-term residential care (LTRC) facilities have received limited focus in Canada, although literature from other countries indicates that public perceptions of LTRC tend to be negative, particularly in contexts that prioritize aging and dying in place. Using Manitoba as the study context, we investigate a question of broad relevance to the Canadian perspective; specifically, what are current public perceptions of the role and function of long-term care in the context of a changing health care system? Through critical discourse analysis, we identify four overarching discourses dominating public perceptions of LTRC: the problem of public aging, LTRC as an imperfect solution to the problem, LTRC as ambiguous social spaces, and LTRC as a last resort option. Building on prior theoretical work, we suggest that public perceptions of LTRC are informed by neoliberal discourses that privilege individual responsibility and problematize public care.
In addition to evoking western lands and democratic politics, the very name of America has also encouraged apocalyptic visions. The “American Dream” has not only been about the prospect of material prosperity; it has also been about the end of the world. Final forecasts constitute one of America’s oldest literary genres, extending from the eschatological theology of the New England Puritans to the revolutionary discourse of the early republic, the emancipatory rhetoric of the Civil War, the anxious fantasies of the atomic age, and the doomsday digital media of today. For those studying the history of America, renditions of the apocalypse are simply unavoidable. This collection brings together two dozen essays by prominent scholars that explore the meanings of apocalypse across different periods, regions, genres, registers, modes, and traditions of American literature and culture. It locates the logic and rhetoric of apocalypse at the very core of American literary history.
The idea of America has always encouraged apocalyptic visions. The 'American Dream' has not only imagined the prospect of material prosperity; it has also imagined the end of the world. 'Final forecasts' constitute one of America's oldest literary genres, extending from the eschatological theology of the New England Puritans to the revolutionary discourse of the early republic, the emancipatory rhetoric of the Civil War, the anxious fantasies of the atomic age, and the doomsday digital media of today. For those studying the history of America, renditions of the apocalypse are simply unavoidable. This book brings together two dozen essays by prominent scholars that explore the meanings of apocalypse across different periods, regions, genres, registers, modes, and traditions of American literature and culture. It locates the logic and rhetoric of apocalypse at the very core of American literary history.
Predispersal seed predation is one of the main causes of seed mortality in plant populations, contributing to decreased plant recruitment. Seed loss has previously been found to be related to crop size. Thus, we examined the influence of individual crop size on predispersal seed predation by beetles in the palm Syagrus flexuosa in the Brazilian savanna. The study was carried out in three tropical woodland savanna sites, where we sampled the total seed crop of 46 fruiting palms and checked the presence of beetle larvae inside all seeds per plant. We observed predispersal seed predation of S. flexuosa from all sites and a high variation in the number of seeds preyed on per individual palm. Crop size had a positive influence on the number of seeds lost to predispersal seed predators. Variations in levels of predispersal seed predation may also be accounted for by the reproductive phenology of S. flexuosa. If fruits are not available at the same time, less resource is available for predators and therefore a high proportion of seeds may be preyed on. Thus, our study demonstrates that an individual plant trait, crop size, is an important predictor of beetle seed damage per palm and a driver of the number of seeds lost to predispersal seed predators.
Symptoms of serious mental illness are multidimensional and often interact in complex ways. Generative models offer value in elucidating the underlying relationships that characterise these networks of symptoms.
In this paper we use generative models to find unique interactions of schizophrenia symptoms as experienced on a moment-by-moment basis.
Self-reported mood, anxiety and psychosis symptoms, self-reported measurements of sleep quality and social function, cognitive assessment, and smartphone touch screen data from two assessments modelled after the Trail Making A and B tests were collected with a digital phenotyping app for 47 patients in active treatment for schizophrenia over a 90-day period. Patients were retrospectively divided up into various non-exclusive subgroups based on measurements of depression, anxiety, sleep duration, cognition and psychosis symptoms taken in the clinic. Associated transition probabilities for the patient cohort and for the clinical subgroups were calculated using state transitions between adjacent 3-day timesteps of pairwise survey domains.
The three highest probabilities for associated transitions across all patients were anxiety-inducing mood (0.357, P < 0.001), psychosis-inducing mood (0.276, P < 0.001), and anxiety-inducing poor sleep (0.268, P < 0.001). These transition probabilities were compared against a validation set of 17 patients from a pilot study, and no significant differences were found. Unique symptom networks were found for clinical subgroups.
Using a generative model using digital phenotyping data, we show that certain symptoms of schizophrenia may play a role in elevating other schizophrenia symptoms in future timesteps. Symptom networks show that it is feasible to create clinically interpretable models that reflect the unique symptom interactions of psychosis-spectrum illness. These results offer a framework for researchers capturing temporal dynamics, for clinicians seeking to move towards preventative care, and for patients to better understand their lived experience.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
In patients with β-lactam allergies, administration of non–β-lactam surgical prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of infection. Although many patients self-report β-lactam allergies, most are unconfirmed or mislabeled. A quality improvement process, utilizing a structured β-lactam allergy tool, was implemented to improve the utilization of preferred β-lactam surgical prophylaxis.
A major goal of Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) was to determine what steps are needed moving forward in examining gender representation in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Specifically, on the topic of pay differences, we highlight that gender differences in pay are in part due to differences in negotiation behaviors and/or experiences. Prior research demonstrates that female negotiators receive greater backlash than male negotiators—a possible explanation to why men tend to negotiate more often and more successfully than women (Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007). Based on this evidence, one next step in moving forward should involve providing resources and knowledge to improve negotiation skills and practices specifically aimed at eliminating differences between women and men in both propensity to negotiate and the evaluation/consequences of negotiating.