To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Current dam discharge patterns in Noxon Rapids Reservoir reduce concentration and exposure times (CET) of herbicides used for aquatic plant management. Herbicide applications during periods of low dam discharge may increase herbicide CETs and improve efficacy. Applications of rhodamine WT dye were monitored under peak (736 to 765 m3 s−1) and minimum (1.4 to 2.8 m3 s−1) dam discharge patterns to quantify water-exchange processes. Whole-plot dye half-life under minimal discharge was 33 h, a 15-fold increase compared with the dye treatment during peak discharge. Triclopyr concentrations measured during minimum discharge within the treated plot ranged from 214 ± 25 to 1,243 ± 36 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 h after treatment (HAT), respectively. Endothall concentrations measured during minimum discharge in the same plot ranged from 164 ± 78 to 2,195 ± 1,043 µg L−1 from 0 to 48 HAT, respectively. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 66%, 8%, and 14% during pretreatment, 5 wk after treatment (WAT), and 52 WAT, respectively. Myriophyllum spicatum occurrence in the nontreated plot was 68%, 71%, and 83% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) occurrence in the treatment plot was 29%, 0%, and 97% during pretreatment, 5 WAT, and 52 WAT, respectively. Potamogeton crispus increased from 24% to 83% at 0 WAT to 52 WAT, respectively, in the nontreated plot. Native species richness declined from 3.3 species per point to 2.1 in the treatment plot in the year of treatment but returned to pretreatment numbers by 52 WAT. Native species richness did not change during the study in the nontreated reference plot. Herbicide applications during periods of low flow can increase CETs and improve control, whereas applications during times of high-water flow would shorten CETs and could result in reduced treatment efficacy.
Globally, giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus J.M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodkinson & Renvoize [sacchariflorus × sinensis]) is used as a biofuel crop due to its ability to persist in a wide range of climates. However, little work has assessed this plant’s ability to invade and persist in wetland habitats. In outdoor mesocosms, we examined M. × giganteus’s ability to grow in simulated wetland versus upland habitats and examined chemical control strategies for both habitats using aquatic-labeled herbicides. Miscanthus × giganteus growth was consistently greater in simulated wetland habitats, with wetland plants 2.4 to 3 times taller than upland plants at 6 wk after treatment (WAT) and 2.8 to 3.3 times taller than upland plants at 12 WAT. Miscanthus × giganteus aboveground biomass was 12.7 to 17.7 times greater in wetland- versus upland-grown plants at 6 WAT and 9.6 to 12.5 times greater at 12 WAT. Belowground biomass was 4.5 to 10.7 times greater in wetland versus upland grown plants at 6 WAT and 4.0 to 6.1 times greater at 12 WAT. Miscanthus × giganteus belowground biomass was always greater than aboveground in both habitats at 6 (6.0 times greater in wetlands and 2.9 times greater in uplands) and 12 WAT (3.8 times greater in wetlands and 1.3 times greater in uplands). Generally, all herbicide treatments reduced M. × giganteus height (66% to 100% reduction) and biomass (84% to 100%) compared with nontreated plants at 12 WAT; however, glyphosate (5,716.3 g ai ha−1) and imazapyr (1,120.8 g ai ha−1) performed better than imazamox (560.4 g ai ha−1) and penoxsulam (98.6 g ai ha−1). This is the first work to provide evidence that M. × giganteus can be chemically controlled in wetland habitats. Furthermore, this is the first work to show that penoxsulam (an acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicide) can reduce M. × giganteus growth in upland or wetland habitats.
Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) is an invasive aquatic and wetland plant capable of developing monotypic stands in emergent and submersed sites. This plant can rapidly outcompete native vegetation and impede human practices by reducing recreation (boating, fishing, and skiing) and disrupting agricultural use of water resources (irrigation canals). Mechanical removal practices occurring biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, and once per growing season were compared with chemical control with diquat applied sequentially at 0.19 ppmv ai for two consecutive months over 2 yr (2016 and 2017). Biweekly removal gave the most consistent control of B. umbellatus biomass and propagules. Diquat application along with monthly and bimonthly clippings gave varying degrees of B. umbellatus control. Clipping once per growing season did not control B. umbellatus when compared with reference plants, while clipping B. umbellatus every 2 wk (biweekly) controlled rush propagules most effectively. However, it is unlikely this method will be sufficient as a stand-alone control option due to the slow speed of harvester boats, the potential these boats have to spread B. umbellatus propagules to more sites, and the expense of mechanical operations. However, clipping could be used as part of an integrated strategy for B. umbellatus control.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
Waterhyacinth is a free-floating aquatic weed that is considered a nuisance worldwide. Excessive growth of waterhyacinth limits recreational use of water bodies as well as interferes with many ecological processes. Accurate estimates of biomass are useful to assess the effectiveness of control methods to manage this aquatic weed. While large water bodies require significant labor inputs with respect to ground-truth surveys, available technology like remote sensing could be capable of providing temporal and spatial information from a target area at a much reduced cost. Studies were conducted at Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen (Mississippi) during the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 over established populations of waterhyacinth. The objective was to estimate biomass based on nondestructive methods using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Landsat 5 TM simulated data. Biomass was collected monthly using a 0.10m2 quadrat at 25 randomly-located locations at each site. Morphometric plant parameters were also collected to enhance the use of NDVI for biomass estimation. Reflectance measurements using a hyperspectral sensor were taken every month at each site during biomass collection. These spectral signatures were then transformed into a Landsat 5 TM simulated data set using MatLab® software. A positive linear relationship (r2 = 0.28) was found between measured biomass of waterhyacinth and NDVI values from the simulated dataset. While this relationship appears weak, the addition of morphological parameters such as leaf area index (LAI) and leaf length enhanced the relationship yielding an r2 = 0.66. Empirically, NDVI saturates at high LAI, which may limit its use to estimate the biomass in very dense vegetation. Further studies using NDVI calculated from narrower spectral bands than those contained in Landsat 5 TM are recommended.
Parrotfeather is an invasive, aquatic plant in the United States that is native to South America. It has impaired the use of water bodies throughout the United States and is difficult to control, despite using a variety of management techniques. Our objectives were to examine the efficacy of subsurface applications of seven herbicides labeled for aquatic use and to compare those applications to herbicides that can also be applied to emergent foliage. A replicated mesocosm study was conducted in 378-L (100-gal) tanks beginning in August 2007 and repeated during the same period in 2008. The maximum and half-maximum labeled rates of copper chelate, diquat, endothall, fluridone, triclopyr, and carfentrazone-ethyl were applied to the water column in designated mesocosms. The maximum labeled rate for foliar applications of diquat, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were used to compare treatment methods. Six weeks after treatment (WAT), copper, endothall, fluridone, and carfentrazone-ethyl did not achieve 90% control; in fact, control was less than 50% for each herbicide, and therefore, the herbicides were not considered efficacious for controlling parrotfeather. Diquat at all rates and application methods resulted in 70 to 90% biomass reduction. Triclopyr, with both the highest aqueous concentration and foliar application, resulted in an 84 and 86%, respectively, reduction in biomass at 6 WAT. The foliar application of 2,4-D was the only herbicide and application method that resulted in ≥ 90% biomass reduction of parrotfeather. In these studies, regrowth occurred in all tanks regardless of herbicide or treatment method, indicating multiple applications would be necessary to provide longer-term plant control. Future research should identify possible herbicide combinations or timing of applications to maximize treatment efficacy.
Lake Pend Oreille is the largest (36,000 ha or 91,000 ac) freshwater lake in Idaho. Approximately 27% or 10,000 ha of the lake is littoral zone habitat supporting aquatic macrophyte growth. Eurasian watermilfoil has invaded large areas of this littoral zone habitat, with early estimates suggesting approximately 2,000 ha by the mid 2000s. Idaho State Department of Agriculture developed a state-wide eradication program in response to the threats posed by Eurasian watermilfoil, which attempts to quantify Eurasian watermilfoil infestations and its effects on the native plant community. Littoral zone point intercept surveys were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to monitor the trends in aquatic macrophyte community structure and assess management strategies against Eurasian watermilfoil. Lake Pend Oreille has a species-rich aquatic macrophyte community of more than 50 species. Lake-wide, the presence of Eurasian watermilfoil significantly decreased from 2007 (12.5%) to 2008 (7.9%). The native plant community has remained stable from 2007 to 2008 despite lake-wide management activities. In managed areas, the frequency of Eurasian watermilfoil during the 2008 assessment was 23.6% after herbicide applications. This represents a 63% reduction in Eurasian watermilfoil presence from the 2007 (64.5%) survey. When 2,4-D was combined with endothall, the presence of Eurasian watermilfoil declined from 63% (2007) to 36.5% in 2008. Eurasian watermilfoil treated with triclopyr also declined significantly, 64% to 18.2%. When all treatment methods were pooled and compared with areas that were not treated, the presence of Eurasian watermilfoil was significantly greater (52.5%) in untreated areas as opposed to treated areas (23%). The removal of Eurasian watermilfoil resulted in an increase in native species in most areas. Currently, there is as little as 200 ha of Eurasian watermilfoil remaining, which represents an overall reduction of 90% in approximately 7 yr of management.
Common reed (Phragmites australis) is an invasive perennial grass in aquatic and riparian environments across the United States, forming monotypic stands that displace native vegetation that provides food and cover for wildlife. Genetic variation in global populations of common reed has given rise to two invasive haplotypes, I and M, in the United States. Our objectives were to (1) determine if any differences in herbicide efficacy exist with respect to common reed haplotypes I and M and (2) screen for other labeled aquatic herbicides that may have activity on common reed haplotypes I and M, most notably imazamox and diquat. A replicated outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in 1,136-L (300-gal) tanks using haplotypes I and M of common reed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methodologies were used to verify the identification of I and M haplotypes used in this study. Diquat at 2.2 (1.9) and 4.5 (4.0) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), glyphosate at 2.1 (1.8) and 4.2 (3.7) kg ae ha−1 (lb ae ac−1), imazamox at 0.6 (0.5) and 1.1 (0.9) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), imazapyr at 0.8 (0.7) and 1.7 (1.5) kg ai ha−1 (lb ai ac−1), and triclopyr at 3.4 (3.0) and 6.7 (5.9) kg ae ha−1 (lb ae ac−1) were applied to the foliage of common reed. After 12 wk, no difference (P = 0.28) in herbicide tolerance was seen between the two haplotypes with respect to biomass. The 4.2-kg ae ha−1 rate of glyphosate and the 0.8- and 1.7 kg ai ha−1 rates of imazapyr reduced common reed by > 90% at 12 wk after treatment (WAT). Imazamox at 0.6 and 1.1 kg ai ha−1, and triclopyr at 3.4 and 6.7 kg ae ha−1 reduced common reed biomass (62–86%) at 12 WAT, though regrowth occurred. Diquat did not significantly reduce biomass by 12 wk. Glyphosate and imazapyr were the only herbicides that resulted in > 90% biomass reduction and corroborate control from previous studies.
Common reed (Phragmites australis) is a nonnative invasive perennial grass that is problematic in aquatic and riparian environments across the United States. Common reed often forms monotypic stands that displace native vegetation which provide food and cover for wildlife. To help maintain native habitats and manage populations of common reed in the United States, an understanding of its life history and starch allocation patterns are needed. Monthly biomass samples were harvested from sites throughout the Mobile River delta in southern Alabama, USA from January 2006 to December 2007 to quantify seasonal biomass and starch allocation patterns. Total biomass of common reed throughout the study was between 1375 and 3718 g m−2 depending on the season. Maximum aboveground biomass was 2200 ± 220 g m−2 in October of 2006 and 1302 ± 88 g m−2 in December of 2007. Maximum belowground biomass was seen in November of 2006 and 2007 with 1602 ± 233 and 1610 ± 517 g m−2 respectively. Biomass was related to ambient temperature, in that, as temperature decreased aboveground biomass (p = 0.05) decreased. Decreases in aboveground biomass were followed by an increase in belowground biomass (p < 0.01). Starch comprised 1 to 10% of aboveground biomass with peak temporary storage occurring in July and August 2006 and September to November of 2007. Belowground tissues stored the majority of starch for common reed regardless of the time of year. Overall, belowground tissues stored 5 to 20% of total starch for common reed with peak storage occurring in December 2006 and October 2007. Starch allocation to belowground tissues increased as temperatures decreased. Understanding seasonal life history patterns can provide information to guide management strategies by identifying the vulnerable points in biomass and starch reserves in common reed.
The Detroit Lakes chain of lakes consists of five basins in northwest Minnesota adjacent to the town of Detroit Lakes. Flowering rush has been established in these basins since the 1960s. We evaluated the distribution of flowering rush in the five basins using a point intercept method, with 830 points distributed in a grid with points 150 m apart. These data were analyzed to determine whether invasive and native species frequencies were different between 2010 and 2011. We also assessed co-occurrence of flowering rush with native hardstem bulrush. The distribution of both flowering rush and hardstem bulrush was unchanged from 2010 to 2011. Flowering rush is invading areas with native plants and not establishing in unvegetated areas. Although flowering rush is found as deep as 4.5 m, it is most frequent at a depth of 1.3 m. We also examined the distribution of biomass and growth across a depth gradient from 0.3 to 3.0 m in 0.3-m intervals. At each 0.3-m interval, three biomass samples were collected at each of 10 transects for a total of 30 samples per depth interval or 300 biomass samples. At each point, leaf height, emergent leaf height, water depth, number of ramets, and number of rhizome buds were counted. Biomass samples were collected in a 0.018-m2 core sampler, sorted to shoots and belowground biomass. We found that flowering rush height and biomass peaked at 1.3 m and declined with greater depth. Bud density was negatively related to water depth. Bud density averaged 300 buds m–2, which was three times the average ramet density (100 ramets m–2).
Alligatorweed, waterhyacinth, and hydrilla are three nonnative aquatic species of concern in the Ross Barnett Reservoir near Jackson, MS. Point-intercept surveys were conducted on the reservoir from 2005 to 2010 to monitor native and nonnative species' distributions and assess herbicide treatment efficacy across the reservoir. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and diquat were made during summer months for emergent and free-floating vegetation, whereas submersed applications of liquid copper and granular fluridone were applied in spring and late summer for subsurface hydrilla populations. American lotus is the native species that has been observed the most throughout the survey years, with occurrence frequencies averaging between 17 and 27%. Alligatorweed populations significantly decreased from 21% in 2005 to 4% in 2006; however, they consistently increased in the next 4 yr to 12% occurrence in 2010. Waterhyacinth occurrence has remained relatively constant over the study period, averaging below 10% occurrence. Hydrilla was discovered in the reservoir in late 2005 and has remained below 2% in frequency of occurrence since 2006. Suppression of these nonnative species has been attributed to rigorous monitoring and herbicide applications conducted on the reservoir since 2005. A logistic regression model indicated that as native species richness increased, the likelihood of a nonnative species occurring also increased.
Many large-scale management programs directed toward the control of waterhyacinth rely on maintenance management with herbicides. Improving the implementation of these programs could be achieved through accurately detecting herbicide injury in order to evaluate efficacy. Mesocosm studies were conducted in the fall and summer of 2006 and 2007 at the R. R. Foil Plant Science Research Center, Mississippi State University, to detect and predict herbicide injury on waterhyacinth treated with four different rates of imazapyr and glyphosate. Herbicide rates corresponded to maximum recommended rates of 0.6 and 3.4 kg ae ha−1 (0.5 and 3 lb ac−1) for imazapyr and glyphosate, respectively, and three rates lower than recommended maximum. Injury was visually estimated using a phytotoxicity rating scale, and reflectance measurements were collected using a handheld hyperspectral sensor. Reflectance measurements were then transformed into a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) simulated data set to obtain pixel values for each spectral band. Statistical analyses were performed to determine if a correlation existed between bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 and phytotoxicity ratings. Simulated data from Landsat 5 TM indicated that band 4 was the most useful band to detect and predict herbicide injury of waterhyacinth by glyphosate and imazapyr. The relationship was negative because pixel values of band 4 decreased when herbicide injury increased. At 2 wk after treatment, the relationship between band 4 and phytotoxicity was best (r2 of 0.75 and 0.90 for glyphosate and imazapyr, respectively), which served to predict herbicide injury in the following weeks.