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Public representations of long-term residential care (LTRC) facilities have received limited focus in Canada, although literature from other countries indicates that public perceptions of LTRC tend to be negative, particularly in contexts that prioritize aging and dying in place. Using Manitoba as the study context, we investigate a question of broad relevance to the Canadian perspective; specifically, what are current public perceptions of the role and function of long-term care in the context of a changing health care system? Through critical discourse analysis, we identify four overarching discourses dominating public perceptions of LTRC: the problem of public aging, LTRC as an imperfect solution to the problem, LTRC as ambiguous social spaces, and LTRC as a last resort option. Building on prior theoretical work, we suggest that public perceptions of LTRC are informed by neoliberal discourses that privilege individual responsibility and problematize public care.
When war broke out in August 1914, it was viewed with a mixture of disbelief and disinterest by Americans The government’s official stance of neutrality was widely supported by the general public, but at the same time there were also voices arguing for preparedness, and once Congress declared war on Germany in 1917, voices against American involvement were quickly silenced. This fundamental shift in public opinion from neutrality to total support for the war effort is mirrored in American sheet music from 1914 to 1919. During the war over 30,000 songs were composed and copyrighted, many in editions of thousands of copies. Sung in parlors, theaters, and bars, these songs — though not a part of official propaganda — had an undeniable impact on the American public’s attitude toward the country’s involvement in the war.
Implementation of clinically useful research discoveries in the academic environment is challenged by limited funding for early phase proof-of-concept studies and inadequate expertise in product development and commercialization. To address these limitations, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the National Centers for Accelerated Innovations (NCAI) program in 2013. Three centers competed successfully for awards through this mechanism. Here, we present the experience of one such center, the Boston Biomedical Innovation Center (B-BIC), and demonstrate its remarkable success at the translation of innovations to clinical application and commercialization, as well as skills development and education.
This paper proposes the replication of Bird's (2010) and Serrano's (2011) studies, which examined distribution of practice effects in second language acquisition (SLA). These studies, which took place in authentic classroom contexts, produced conflicting results regarding the degree to which the learning of a second language (L2) benefited from distributed instruction. In the first part of the paper, I discuss the distribution of practice research in the learning and teaching of L2s. I then describe Bird's (2010) and Serrano's (2011) work, and highlight the strengths and limitations of the approaches of these studies. Finally, a number of approaches to approximate replications are suggested for each study in order to assess the reliability, internal validity, and generalizability of the original findings
Vibration-based methods can be used effectively to characterize the physical properties of biological materials, with an increasing interest focused on the mechanics of individual, living cells. Real-time measurements of cell properties, such as mass and Young's modulus, can yield important insights into many aspects of cell growth and metabolism as well as the interaction of cells with external stimuli (e.g., drugs). Vibrational test structures designed for the study of such cell properties often use fixed configurations and operational modes, with associated limitations in determining multiple characteristics of the cell, simultaneously. Recent development of mechanics-guided techniques for deterministic assembly of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures provides a route to vibrational frameworks that offer tunable configurations, vibration modes, and resonant frequencies. Here we propose a method that exploits such tunable vibrational structures to simultaneously determine the mass and modulus of a single adherent cell, or of other biological materials or small-scale living systems (e.g., organoids), through theoretical modeling and finite element analysis. The idea involves a 3D architecture that supports two different vibrational structures and can be converted from one to the other through application of strain to an elastomeric substrate. Specifically, tailored designs for serpentine ribbons in these systems enable a decoupling of the dependence of the resonant frequencies of the two structures to the cell mass and modulus, with an associated ability to measure these two properties accurately and independently. These same concepts can be scaled to apply to various types of cells, as well as to organoids (3D clusters of cells) and other biological materials with small geometries, across a range of values of mass and modulus. This method could serve as the foundation for microelectromechanical systems capable of monitoring mass and modulus in real time for use in research in biomechanics and dynamic biological processes.
This study is a conceptual replication of Rogers and Cheung’s (2018) investigation into distribution of practice effects on the learning of L2 vocabulary in child EFL classrooms in Hong Kong. Following a pretest, treatment, delayed posttest design, 66 primary school students (Cantonese L1) studied 20 vocabulary items over three training episodes under spaced-short (1-day interval) or spaced-long (8-day interval) learning conditions. The spacing of the vocabulary items was manipulated within-participants, and learning was assessed using crossword puzzles following a 4-week delay. While Rogers and Cheung (2018) resulted in minimal overall learning with a slight advantage for the spaced-short group, this study found large learning gains across the experimental conditions with no significant differences between the two learning schedules. Taken together, these results provide evidence that the results from previous research examining input spacing with adult populations in laboratory contexts might not generalize to authentic child learning contexts.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between specific aspects of carer distress and time until nursing home admission (NHA) in people with mild dementia.
Prospective cohort study.
Participants were recruited from the Dementia Study of Western Norway (DemVest).
This study included 107 participants admitted to a nursing home who were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n = 64) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 43) and their primary carers.
The Relative Stress Scale (RSS) was used to assess the level of reported distress in carers. Adjusted partial least square (PLS) prediction analysis of baseline items of the RSS was used to study the associations between individual items of the RSS and time until NHA.
Carer distress is an important contributor to early NHA, explaining 19.3% of the total variance of time until NHA in the model without covariates. In the adjusted PLS model, the most important RSS predictors of time until NHA were feeling frustrated (estimate = −137; CI, −209, −64.5), having limitations on social life (estimate = −118; CI, −172, −64), not being able to get away on vacation (estimate −116; CI, −158.3, −73.7), and feeling unable to cope with the situation (estimate = −63; CI, −122.6, −3.4).
Preservation of the informal care capacity represents important steps for improving the management of resources in dementia care. This study identifies aspects of carer distress associated with a shorter time until NHA. Looking beyond the sum score of the RSS helps promote the development of flexible and tailored interventions and perhaps delay NHA.