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Liquid immiscibility has become the preferred mode of genesis for the carbonatite rocks, which commonly, but not exclusively, accompany silicate rocks in alkaline-rock complexes. This concept has been universally based on the presumption that nephelinitic and phonolitic magmas can evolve to a stage where two conjugate immiscible liquids separate. It is assumed that these two liquids separate quickly, or even instantaneously, into discrete bodies of magma capable of being intruded or extruded with subsequent independent crystallization. Supporting evidence generally given is: alleged consanguinity as discrete occurrence of the two rock types; similarity of radiogenic isotope ratios; trace element contents similar to those predicted from experimentally derived partition coefficients. We do not accept that a general case for liquid immiscibility has been demonstrated; although we do accept that silicate and carbonate liquids are inherently immiscible, we maintain that they are not conjugate in a petrogenetic context. We have reviewed and critically examined the experimental data purporting to establish liquid immiscibility and find that when applied to natural rocks, they are based on inappropriate experimental designs, which are not relevant to the genesis of calcite or dolomite carbonatites, although they might have some relevance to Oldoinyo Lengai nyerereite–gregoryite lavas. The design of these experiments guarantees immiscibility and ensures that the carbonate liquids formed will be calcitic or sodium-rich. We dispute the validity of comparing the trace element contents of natural rocks, which in many instances do not represent liquid compositions, to experimentally determine partition coefficients. We consider that experimental design inadequacies, principally assuming but not proving, that the liquids involved are conjugate, indicate that these coefficients are merely an expression of the preference of certain elements for particular liquids, regardless of how the liquids formed. Proof of consanguinity in alkaline complexes requires more accurate age determinations on the relevant rock types than has generally been the case, and in most complexes, consanguinity can be discounted. We dispute the contention that melt inclusions represent parental melts, although they might elucidate the character of magmas undergoing fractional crystallization from magmatic to carbothermal stages. Radiogenic isotope data are shown to be too widely variable to support a case for liquid immiscibility. We address the contention that calcite cannot crystallize from a dolomitic liquid formed by direct mantle melting, and must therefore have crystallized from a calcite carbonate liquid generated by liquid immiscibility, and demonstrate that it is an unsupported hypothesis as calcite can readily crystallize from dolomitic liquids. We observe that, because immiscible dolomite liquids have never been produced experimentally, the liquid immiscibility proposition could at best be applied only to calcite carbonatites, thus leaving unexplained the large number of dolomite carbonatites and those of either type, which are not accompanied by alkaline silicate rocks. The assumed bimodality of alkaline-rock carbonatite complexes is considered to be fallacious and no actual geological or petrographic evidence for immiscibility processes is evident in these complexes. Several examples of alkaline rock carbonatite complexes for which immiscibility has been proposed are evaluated critically and shown to fail in attempts to establish them as exemplifying immiscibility. We conclude that no actual geological or experimental data exist to establish liquid immiscibility being involved in the genesis of calcite or dolomite carbonatite-forming magmas.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
In patients with bipolar disorder, depression symptoms are associated with greater reduction in function and quality of life than hypomania/mania symptoms. Lumateperone (LUMA), is an FDA-approved antipsychotic to treat schizophrenia and depressive episodes associated with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder.
In a recent phase 3 clinical trial (Study 404, NCT03249376) in people with bipolar depression, LUMA 42 mg monotherapy significantly improved symptoms of depression compared with placebo (PBO). This analysis of Study 404 investigated the effects of LUMA on functional disability and quality of life as measured using the secondary outcome measure, the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF).
Patients (18–75 years) with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder experiencing a major depressive episode (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] Total score ≥20 and Clinical Global Impression Scale-Bipolar Version-Severity [CGI-BP-S] score ≥4) were randomized to LUMA 42 mg or PBO orally, once daily in the evening for 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to Day 43 in MADRS Total score, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach in the intent-to-treat population (ITT). This post hoc analysis evaluated the mean change from baseline to Day 43 in the Q-LES-Q-SF individual item scores using an analysis of covariance with last observation carried forward (ANCOVA-LOCF) in the ITT. Categorical shifts in individual items were also analyzed.
The ITT comprised 376 patients (LUMA 42 mg, 188; PBO, 188). Patients in the LUMA 42 mg group had significantly greater improvement on MADRS Total score change from baseline to Day 43 compared with PBO (least squares mean difference vs PBO [LSMD], −4.585; 95% CI, −6.344 to −2.826; effect size vs PBO [ES], −0.56; P<.0001). LUMA 42 mg treatment significantly improved Q-LES-Q-SF Total score from baseline to Day 43 compared with PBO (LSMD, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.59; P=.001).
The Q-LES-Q-SF items with the lowest mean scores at baseline in both groups were mood, leisure time activities, and sexual drive, interest, and/or performance. By Day 43, LUMA 42 mg treatment significantly improved 8 of the 14 items in the Q-LES-Q-SF (P<0.05). Overall life satisfaction also significantly improved with LUMA treatment (P=.0016). The largest improvements with LUMA 42 mg compared with PBO (ES>0.3,) were seen for the ability to function in daily life, family relationships, household activities, leisure time activities, and mood (all LSMD=0.3; all P<.01).
In patients with bipolar depression, treatment with LUMA 42 mg compared with PBO significantly improved patient quality of life and functional impairment. These results support LUMA 42 mg as treatment of MDEs associated with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder in adults.
Maternal protein restriction is often associated with structural and functional sequelae in offspring, particularly affecting growth and renal-cardiovascular function. However, there is little understanding as to whether hypertension and kidney disease occur because of a primary nephron deficit or whether controlling postnatal growth can result in normal renal-cardiovascular phenotypes. To investigate this, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a low-protein (LP, 8.4% protein) or normal-protein (NP, 19.4% protein) diet prior to mating and until offspring were weaned at postnatal day (PN) 21. Offspring were then fed a non ‘growth’ (4.6% fat) which ensured that catch-up growth did not occur. Offspring growth was determined by weight and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nephron number was determined at PN21 using the disector-fractionator method. Kidney function was measured at PN180 and PN360 using clearance methods. Blood pressure was measured at PN360 using radio-telemetry. Body weight was similar at PN1, but by PN21 LP offspring were 39% smaller than controls (Pdiet < 0.001). This difference was due to proportional changes in lean muscle, fat, and bone content. LP offspring remained smaller than NP offspring until PN360. In LP offspring, nephron number was 26% less in males and 17% less in females, than NP controls (Pdiet < 0.0004). Kidney function was similar across dietary groups and sexes at PN180 and PN360. Blood pressure was similar in LP and NP offspring at PN360. These findings suggest that remaining on a slow growth trajectory after exposure to a suboptimal intrauterine environment does not lead to the development of kidney dysfunction and hypertension.
Structural racism in the USA has roots that extend deep into healthcare and medical research, and it remains a key driver of illness and early death for Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC). Furthermore, the persistence of racism within academic medicine compels an interrogation of education and research within this context. In the spirit of this interrogation, this article highlights a unique model of community-engaged education that integrates cultural humility. As an individual and institutional stance, cultural humility denotes lifelong learning and self-critique, the mitigation of power imbalances, and accountability. The integration of cultural humility emphasizes that when space is created for BIPOC communities to lead the way, education regarding healthcare and research can be effectively reimagined. Demonstrating this effectiveness, six community partners led the development and implementation of a five-module Structural Racism in Healthcare and Research course. Using a cohort model approach, the pilot course enrolled 12 community members and 12 researchers. The curriculum covered topics such as history of racism in healthcare and research, and introduced participants to a cultural resilience framework. Evaluation results demonstrated a significant increase in participants’ knowledge and ability to identify and take action to address inequities related to racism in healthcare and research.
The COVID-19 pandemic has harmed many people's mental health globally. Whilst the evidence generated thus far from high-income countries regarding the pandemic's impact on suicide rates is generally reassuring, we know little about its influence on this outcome in lower- and middle-income countries or among marginalised and disadvantaged people. There are some signals for concern regarding the pandemic's potentially unequal impact on suicide rates, with some of the affected demographic subgroups and regions being at elevated risk before the pandemic began. However, the evidence-base for this topic is currently sparse, and studies conducted to date have generally not taken account of pre-pandemic temporal trends. The collection of accurate, complete and comparable data on suicide rate trends in ethnic minority and low-income groups should be prioritised. The vulnerability of low-income groups will likely be exacerbated further by the current energy supply and cost-of-living crises in many countries. It is therefore crucial that reassuring messaging highlighting the stability of suicide rates during the pandemic does not lead to complacency among policymakers.
Evidence on the impact of the pandemic on healthcare presentations for self-harm has accumulated rapidly. However, existing reviews do not include studies published beyond 2020.
To systematically review evidence on presentations to health services following self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A comprehensive search of databases (WHO COVID-19 database; Medline; medRxiv; Scopus; PsyRxiv; SocArXiv; bioRxiv; COVID-19 Open Research Dataset, PubMed) was conducted. Studies published from 1 January 2020 to 7 September 2021 were included. Study quality was assessed with a critical appraisal tool.
Fifty-one studies were included: 57% (29/51) were rated as ‘low’ quality, 31% (16/51) as ‘moderate’ and 12% (6/51) as ‘high-moderate’. Most evidence (84%, 43/51) was from high-income countries. A total of 47% (24/51) of studies reported reductions in presentation frequency, including all six rated as high-moderate quality, which reported reductions of 17–56%. Settings treating higher lethality self-harm were overrepresented among studies reporting increased demand. Two of the three higher-quality studies including study observation months from 2021 reported reductions in self-harm presentations. Evidence from 2021 suggests increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls.
Sustained reductions in numbers of self-harm presentations were seen into the first half of 2021, although this evidence is based on a relatively small number of higher-quality studies. Evidence from low- and middle-income countries is lacking. Increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls, into 2021 is concerning. Findings may reflect changes in thresholds for help-seeking, use of alternative sources of support and variable effects of the pandemic across groups.
The essays in this volume of the Journal continue its proud tradition of presenting cutting-edge research with a wide chronological and geographical, range, from eleventh-century Georgia (David IV's use of the methods described in De velitatione bellica) to fifteenth-century England and France (a detailed analysis of the use of the under-appreciated lancegay and similar weapons). Iberia and the Empire are also addressed, with a study of Aragonese leaders in the War of the Two Pedros, a discussion of Prince Ferdinand's battle-seeking strategy prior to the battle of Toro in 1476, and an analysis and transcription of a newly-discovered Habsburg battle plan of the early sixteenth century, drawn up for the war against Venice. The volume also embraces different approaches, from cultural-intellectual history (the afterlife of the medieval Christian Warrior), to experimental archaeology (the mechanics of raising trebuchets), to comparison of 'the face of battle' in a medieval illuminated manuscript with its depiction in modern films, to archivally-based administrative history (recruitment among the sub-gentry for Edward I's armies).
Public representations of long-term residential care (LTRC) facilities have received limited focus in Canada, although literature from other countries indicates that public perceptions of LTRC tend to be negative, particularly in contexts that prioritize aging and dying in place. Using Manitoba as the study context, we investigate a question of broad relevance to the Canadian perspective; specifically, what are current public perceptions of the role and function of long-term care in the context of a changing health care system? Through critical discourse analysis, we identify four overarching discourses dominating public perceptions of LTRC: the problem of public aging, LTRC as an imperfect solution to the problem, LTRC as ambiguous social spaces, and LTRC as a last resort option. Building on prior theoretical work, we suggest that public perceptions of LTRC are informed by neoliberal discourses that privilege individual responsibility and problematize public care.
Implementation of clinically useful research discoveries in the academic environment is challenged by limited funding for early phase proof-of-concept studies and inadequate expertise in product development and commercialization. To address these limitations, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the National Centers for Accelerated Innovations (NCAI) program in 2013. Three centers competed successfully for awards through this mechanism. Here, we present the experience of one such center, the Boston Biomedical Innovation Center (B-BIC), and demonstrate its remarkable success at the translation of innovations to clinical application and commercialization, as well as skills development and education.