To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Children with CHD are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. There is little information on long-term motor function and its association with behaviour.
To assess motor function and behaviour in a cohort of 10-year-old children with CHD after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Motor performance and movement quality were examined in 129 children with CHD using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment providing four timed and one qualitative component, and a total timed motor score was created based on the four timed components. The Beery Test of Visual–Motor Integration and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered.
All Zurich Neuromotor Assessment motor tasks were below normative values (all p ≤ 0.001), and the prevalence of poor motor performance (≤10th percentile) ranged from 22.2% to 61.3% in the different components. Visuomotor integration and motor coordination were poorer compared to norms (all p ≤ 0.001). 14% of all analysed children had motor therapy at the age of 10 years. Children with a total motor score ≤10th percentile showed more internalising (p = 0.002) and externalising (p = 0.028) behavioural problems.
School-aged children with CHD show impairments in a variety of motor domains which are related to behavioural problems. Our findings emphasise that motor problems can persist into school-age and require detailed assessment and support.
Correction of tetralogy of Fallot during infancy usually eliminates the risks associated with general anaesthesia. In rare cases of uncorrected defects persisting into adulthood, anaesthetic management during non-cardiac surgery may therefore be challenging. We describe the use of continuous spinal anaesthesia to successfully circumvent the operative risk of major abdominal surgery in an adult patient with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot.
Oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) appear to represent important links between obesity and cardiovascular, metabolic and/or renal disease. We investigated whether oxidative stress and NO production/metabolism are increased in overweight and obese prepubertal children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of 313 children aged 8–9 years. Anthropometrics, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), insulin resistance (homoeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR)), inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma and urinary isoprostanes (P-Isop, U-Isop), urinary hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2), and plasma and urinary nitrates and nitrites (P-NOx, U-NOx) were compared among normal weight, overweight and obese groups, according to WHO BMI z-score reference. U-Isop were increased in the obese group, whereas U-NOx were increased in both overweight and obese children. U-Isop were positively correlated with U-H2O2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HOMA-IR and TAG. TAS correlated negatively with U-Isop and MPO and positively with PWV. HOMA-IR and U-H2O2 were associated with higher U-Isop, independently of BMI and eGFR, and total cholesterol and U-H2O2 were associated with U-NOx, independently of BMI, eGFR values and P-NOx concentration. In overweight and obese children, eGFR decreased across P-NOx tertiles (median: 139·3 (25th, 75th percentile 128·0, 146·5), 128·0 (25th, 75th percentile 121·5, 140·4), 129·5 (25th, 75th percentile 119·4, 138·3), Pfor linear trend=0·003). We conclude that oxidant status and NO are increased in relation to fat accumulation and, even in young children, they translate into higher values of cardiometabolic risk markers and affect renal function.
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the production of fermented foods. The development of concentrated cultures of LAB, for inoculating the production vat directly (bulk starters), has eliminated many problems traditionally involved in their preparation and maintenance by the food industry. For industrial use, LAB are often preserved in a frozen or dried form, the latter preparations having lower transport and storage costs (Kets et al. 1996). Dried cultures, however, lose viability/activity during storage, especially when kept at room temperature (Champagne et al. 1991; Teixeira et al. 1995a,b; Castro et al. 1996). Attempts to improve the survival of LAB during drying have already been tried (Linders et al. 1997b; Gardiner et al. 2000). Previous results indicated a direct relationship between the presence of compatible solutes in LAB and their ability to survive drying conditions. Such solutes include amino acids, amino acid derivatives, quaternary amines, sugars and tetrahydropyrimidines (Kets & De Bont, 1994; Kets et al. 1994, 1996).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.