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Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
Field-based mapping, sandstone petrology, palaeocurrent measurements and zircon cathodoluminescence images, as well as detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology were integrated to investigate the provenance of the Upper Carboniferous – Upper Triassic sedimentary rocks from the northern Bogda Mountains, and further to constrain their tectonic evolution. Variations in sandstone composition suggest that the Upper Carboniferous – Lower Triassic sediments displayed less sedimentary recycling than the Middle–Upper Triassic sediments. U–Pb isotopic dating using the LA-ICP-MS method on zircons from 12 sandstones exhibited similar zircon U–Pb age distribution patterns with major age groups at 360–320 Ma and 320–300 Ma, and with some grains giving ages of > 541 Ma, 541–360 Ma, 300–250 Ma and 250–200 Ma. Coupled with the compiled palaeocurrent data, the predominant sources were the Late Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the North Tianshan and Palaeozoic magmatic rocks of the Yili–Central Tianshan. There was also input from the Bogda Mountains in Middle–Late Triassic time. The comprehensive geological evidence indicates that the Upper Carboniferous – Lower Permian strata were probably deposited in an extensional context which was related to a rift or post-collision rather than arc-related setting. Conspicuously, the large range of U–Pb ages of the detrital zircons, increased sedimentary lithic fragments, fluvial deposits and contemporaneous Triassic zircon ages argue for a Middle–Late Triassic orogenic movement, which was considered to be the initial uplift of the Bogda Mountains.
A new compound Er3Co4Al12 was prepared by arc melting under argon atmosphere. The powder X-ray diffraction data of Er3Co4Al12 were successfully indexed, giving a hexagonal structure with a = 8.6185(2) Å, c = 9.2347(3) Å, and unit-cell volume V = 594.04 Å3. Compound Er3Co4Al12 has the Gd3Ru4Al12 type-structure, Z = 2 and space group P63/mmc.
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