To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this review, we introduce our recent applications of deep learning to solar and space weather data. We have successfully applied novel deep learning methods to the following applications: (1) generation of solar farside/backside magnetograms and global field extrapolation based on them, (2) generation of solar UV/EUV images from other UV/EUV images and magnetograms, (3) denoising solar magnetograms using supervised learning, (4) generation of UV/EUV images and magnetograms from Galileo sunspot drawings, (5) improvement of global IRI TEC maps using IGS TEC ones, (6) one-day forecasting of global TEC maps through image translation, (7) generation of high-resolution magnetograms from Ca II K images, (8) super-resolution of solar magnetograms, (9) flare classification by CNN and visual explanation by attribution methods, and (10) forecasting GOES solar X-ray profiles. We present major results and discuss them. We also present future plans for integrated space weather models based on deep learning.
Objectives: Rotator cuff tear is the leading cause of the decline in quality of life for older adults, but comparative evidence on treatment effectiveness is lacking. This study systematically reviewed the effects of various rotator cuff tear treatments through a Bayesian meta-analysis of the related randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
Methods: We searched nine electronic databases for RCTs evaluating rotator cuff tear treatments from their inception through June 2017. A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence-Decision Support Unit guidelines (Supplementary Table 1). Outcomes included functional improvement, pain one year after surgical treatment, and tendon structural integrity. The Bayesian network meta-analysis was applied for functional improvement and pain, based on an assumption of consistency and similarity. Tendon integrity was reported descriptively.
Results: Fifteen RCTs were selected. Patients undergoing physiotherapy after open surgery showed statistically significant functional improvements compared with those undergoing physiotherapy only (mean differences, 9.1 [credible interval, 0.9–17.4]). Open surgery with physiotherapy was associated with a decrease in pain 1 year after treatment compared with when physiotherapy was combined with arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery, mini open surgery, platelet-rich plasma therapy, or physiotherapy alone (absolute value of mean difference 1.2 to 1.4). The tendon integrity results were inconsistent.
Conclusions: Some surgical treatments were associated with significant improvement in function and pain, but evidence regarding their comparative effectiveness is still lacking. A well-designed RCT discussing functional and structural treatment outcomes is needed in future.
We present gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) could be used not only for stimuli-responsive optical sensors but also for the quantification of radical compounds when these nanoparticles are suitably combined with polymeric materials. When Au NPs are assembled 2-dimensionally on the surface of hydrogel NPs which respond to temperatures, the hybrid NPs displayed thermoreversible multiple color switching. Accordingly, optical bandwidths of the hybrid NPs are reversibly changed with temperatures: with hybrid NPs assembled with 51 nm Au NPs, prominent optical signals are recorded at 900 nm at 50 °C while most of extinction signals are shown below 600 nm at room temperatures. In addition, we demonstrate the modification of Ag NPs’ surfaces (nanocubes and nanospheres) with polyelectrolytes (either positive or negative) could extend the quantifiable detection ranges of radical compounds. Through the surface modification of Ag NPs, the polyelectrolytes protect the Ag NPs by probably either retarding (forming diffusion barriers) or preventing (blocking/entrapping/scavenging) the arrival of radicals to Ag NPs or both. The roles of the polyelectrolytes are demonstrated by using radical compounds produced from tetrahydrofuran and H2O2. From the results, we could obtain calibration curves for the wide-range quantification of radical compounds.
Pt thin films of various thicknesses (30 nm ∼ 200 nm) were deposited on Si wafers with SiO2, Ti, TiO2, or IrO2 buffer layers at various temperatures (room temperature ∼200 °C) by a direct current magnetron sputtering process. The Pt films showed a strong (111)-preferred texture irrespective of the thickness, under-layer, and growth temperature. The authors previously reported [J-E. Lim, D-Y. Park, J.K. Jeong, G. Darlinski, H.J. Kim, and C.S. Hwang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3224 (2002)] that the films were composed of three kinds of grains with slightly different (111) lattice parameters (bulklike, 1.0% and 2.1% larger). This study details the microstructural variations of the Pt films according to the variations of experimental parameters. The different deposition conditions produced slightly different crystalline structures, but the three different (111) lattice parameters were always found. Epitaxial (200) Pt films on a (200) MgO substrate and a highly (111) textured Au thin film on a SiO2/Si did not show the same splitting in the lattice parameter. The grains with 1.0% and 2.1% larger (111) lattice parameter almost disappeared after postannealing at 1000 °C. However, surface chemical binding of the Pt film before and after annealing was unchanged. Therefore, it is believed that the lattice parameter splitting in the (111) textured Pt film originated from the interfacial grains with the distorted crystal structure due probably to growth stress.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.