The translations of Old French sources that appear in this book are drawn from existing English translations whenever possible, although most have been modified. All other translations are my own.
The refrains discussed in this book are identified through the numbering contained in Nico H.J. van den Boogaard's concordance, Rondeaux et refrains du XIIe siècle au début du XIVe, Bibliothèque française et romane Série D: Initiation, textes et documents 3 (Paris: Klincksieck, 1969). Boogaard's concordance rests on two additional catalogues: Friedrich Gennrich's Bibliographie der ältesten französischen und latienischen Motetten, Summa musicae medii aevi, 2 (Darmstadt, 1958) and Hans G. Spanke's catalogue of trouvère songs, Raynaud's Bibliographie des altfranzösischen Liedes (Leiden: Brill, 1955). I refer to motets and songs using these numbering systems throughout.
The editorial policy for musical transcriptions in this book is as follows. In polyphonic transcriptions, beam groups are used to indicate ligature patterns when possible; slurs are used to indicate longer ligatures. Crossed stems indicate plicas. In monophonic transcriptions, slurs are used to indicate ligatures; small notes indicate plicas.
Because refrains are quoted across a diverse variety of sources, their orthography is rarely consistent. When referring in general to a given refrain, I have used the orthography in Boogaard's catalogue. In discussions of a refrain within a particular musical, poetic, or didactic work, I use the orthography found in the original source, giving preference to contextual precision rather than internal consistency.