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Psychiatric hospitalization is a major driver of cost in the treatment of schizophrenia. Here, we asked whether a technology-enhanced approach to relapse prevention could reduce days spent in a hospital after discharge.
The Improving Care and Reducing Cost (ICRC) study was a quasi-experimental clinical trial in outpatients with schizophrenia conducted between 26 February 2013 and 17 April 2015 at 10 different sites in the USA in an outpatient setting. Patients were between 18 and 60 years old with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Patients received usual care or a technology-enhanced relapse prevention program during a 6-month period after discharge. The health technology program included in-person, individualized relapse prevention planning with treatments delivered via smartphones and computers, as well as a web-based prescriber decision support program. The main outcome measure was days spent in a psychiatric hospital during 6 months after discharge.
The study included 462 patients, of which 438 had complete baseline data and were thus used for propensity matching and analysis. Control participants (N = 89; 37 females) were enrolled first and received usual care for relapse prevention followed by 349 participants (128 females) who received technology-enhanced relapse prevention. During 6-month follow-up, 43% of control and 24% of intervention participants were hospitalized (χ2 = 11.76, p<0.001). Days of hospitalization were reduced by 5 days (mean days: b = −4.58, 95% CI −9.03 to −0.13, p = 0.044) in the intervention condition compared to control.
These results suggest that technology-enhanced relapse prevention is an effective and feasible way to reduce rehospitalization days among patients with schizophrenia.
We describe a large SARS-CoV-2 outbreak involving an acute care hospital emergency department during December 2020 and January 2021, in which 27 healthcare personnel worked while infectious, resulting in multiple opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and other healthcare personnel. We provide recommendations for improving infection prevention and control.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In a familial case where 10 of 17 members inherited EA/LVNC in an autosomal dominant pattern, we discovered a novel, damaging missense variant in the gene KLHL26 that segregates with disease and comprises an altered electrostatic surface profile, likely decoupling the CUL3-interactome. We hypothesize that this KLHL26 variant is etiologic of EA/LVNC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We differentiated a family trio (a heart-healthy daughter and EA/LVNC-affected mother and daughter) of induced pluripotent stem cells into cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) in a blinded manner on three iPSC clones per subject. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and biomechanical, electrophysiological, and automated contraction methods, we investigated iPSC-CM differentiation efficiency between D10-20, contractility analysis and cell cycle regulation at D20, and sarcomere organization at D60. We further conducted differential analyses following label-free protein and RNA-Seq quantification at D20. Via CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, we plan to characterize KLHL26 variant-specific iPSC-CM alterations and connect findings to discoveries from patient-specific studies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: All iPSC lines differentiated into CMs with an increased percentage of cTnT+ cells in the affected daughter line. In comparison to the unaffected, affected iPSC-CMs had fewer contractions per minute and altered calcium transients, mainly a higher amount of total calcium release, faster rate of rise and faster rate of fall. The affected daughter line further had shorter shortening and relaxation times, higher proliferation, lower apoptosis, and a smaller cell surface area per cardiac nucleus. The affected mother line trended in a similar direction to the affected daughter line. There were no gross differences in sarcomere organization between the lines. We also discovered differential expression of candidate proteins such as kinase VRK1 and collagen COL5A1 from proteomic profiling. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These discoveries suggest that EA/LVNC characteristics or pathogenesis may result from decreased contractile ability, altered calcium transients, and cell cycle dysregulation. Through the KLHL26 variant correction and introduction in the daughter lines, we will build upon this understanding to inform exploration of critical clinical targets.
Early life adversity (ELA) has been linked with increased arousal responses to threat, including increased amygdala reactivity. Effects of ELA on brain function are well recognized, and emerging evidence suggests that caregivers may influence how environmental stressors impact children’s brain function. We investigated the hypothesis that positive interaction between mother and child can buffer against ELA effects on children’s neural responses to threat, and related symptoms. N = 53 mother–child pairs (children ages 8–14 years) were recruited from an urban population at high risk for violence exposure. Maternal caregiving was measured using the Parenting Questionnaire and in a cooperation challenge task. Children viewed fearful and neutral face stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Children who experienced greater violence at home showed amygdala sensitization, whereas children experiencing more school and community violence showed amygdala habituation. Sensitization was in turn linked with externalizing symptoms. However, maternal warmth was associated with a normalization of amygdala sensitization in children, and fewer externalizing behaviors prospectively up to 1 year later. Findings suggested that the effects of violence exposure on threat-related neural circuitry depend on trauma context (inside or outside the home) and that primary caregivers can increase resilience.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Medical assistance in dying (MAiD), also known as physician-assisted death, is currently legal in several locations across the globe. Brain cancer or its treatments can lead to cognitive impairment, which can impact decision-making capacity for MAiD.
We sought to explore neuro-oncology clinicians’ attitudes and perspectives on MAiD, including interpretation of decision-making capacity for patient MAiD eligibility.
An online survey was distributed to members of national and international neuro-oncology societies. We asked questions about decision-making capacity and MAiD, in part using hypothetical patient scenarios. Multiple choice and free-text responses were captured.
There were 125 survey respondents. Impaired cognition was identified as the most important factor that would signal a decline in patient capacity. At least 26% of survey respondents had moral objections to MAiD. Respondents thought that different hypothetical patients had capacity to make a decision about MAiD (range 18%–58%). In other hypothetical scenarios, fewer clinicians were willing to support a MAiD decision for a patient with an oligodendroglioma (26%) vs. glioblastoma (41%–70%, depending on the scenario). Time since diagnosis, performance status, and patient age seemed to affect support for MAiD decisions (Fisher’s exact P-values 0.007, < 0.001, and 0.049, respectively).
While there are differing opinions on the moral permissibility of MAiD in general and for neuro-oncology patients, most clinicians agree that capacity must be assessed carefully before a decision is made. End-of-life discussions should happen early, before the capacity is lost. Our results can inform assessments of patient capacity in jurisdictions where MAiD is legal.
To understand how the different data collections methods of the Alberta Health Services Infection Prevention and Control Program (IPC) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) are affecting reported rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip replacements (THRs) and total knee replacements (TKRs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Four hospitals in Alberta, Canada.
Those with THR or TKR surgeries between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018.
Demographic information, complex SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared and then IPC and NSQIP data were matched with percent agreement and Cohen’s κ calculated. Statistical analysis was performed for age, gender and complex SSIs. A P value <.05 was considered significant.
In total, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients were compared. The complex SSI rate for NSQIP was higher compared to IPC (THR: 1.19 vs 0.68 [P = .147]; TKR: 0.92 vs 0.80 [P = .682]). After matching, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC, and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.0; κ = 0.48).
Different approaches to monitor SSIs may lead to different results and trending patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are consistently higher than IPC. If systems are compared at any point in time, confidence on the data may be eroded. Stakeholders need to be aware of these variations and education provided to facilitate an understanding of differences and a consistent approach to SSI surveillance monitoring over time.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
A suboptimal diet and nutritional deficiencies can have important influences on health with significant impact among older adults. This study aims to assess the presence of suboptimal dietary intake among older Americans and identify risk and protective factors influencing diet quality.
Cross-sectional secondary analysis.
A nationally representative sample of 5614 community-dwelling older adults over age 54 in the Health and Retirement Study – Health Care and Nutrition Survey.
Overall, only 10·7 % of respondents had a good quality diet (Healthy Eating Index score 81 and above); the majority had diets considered poor or needing improvement. Less than 50 % of respondents met dietary guidelines and nutritional goals for most individual food groups and nutrients. Respondents with low socio-economic status, fewer psychosocial resources and those who had limited access to healthy food outlets were more likely to have a diet of suboptimal quality.
Efforts to remove identified barriers that put older adults at risk for poor nutrition and to provide resources that increase access to healthy food should be made to encourage healthy eating and enhance diet quality.
On January 29, 2020, a total of 195 US citizens were evacuated from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China, to March Air Reserve Base in Riverside, California, and entered the first federally mandated quarantine in over 50 years. With less than 1-d notice, a multi-disciplinary team from Riverside County and Riverside University Health System in conjunction with local and federal agencies established on-site 24-h medical care and behavioral health support. This report details the coordinated efforts by multiple teams that took place to provide care for the passengers and to support the surrounding community.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons causing muscle atrophy and weakness. Nusinersen, the first effective SMA therapy was approved by Health Canada in June 2017 and has been added to the provincial formulary of all but one Canadian province. Access to this effective therapy has triggered the inclusion of SMA in an increasing number of Newborn Screening (NBS) programs. However, the range of disease-modifying SMN2 gene copy numbers encountered in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1)-null individuals means that neither screen-positive definition nor resulting treatment decisions can be determined by SMN1 genotype alone. We outline an approach to this challenge, one that specifically addresses the case of SMA newborns with four copies of SMN2.
To develop a standardized post-referral evaluation pathway for babies with a positive SMA NBS screen result.
An SMA NBS pilot trial in Ontario using first-tier MassARRAY and second-tier multi-ligand probe amplification (MLPA) was launched in January 2020. Prior to this, Ontario pediatric neuromuscular disease and NBS experts met to review the evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of children with SMA as it pertained to NBS. A post-referral evaluation algorithm was developed, outlining timelines for patient retrieval and management.
Ontario’s pilot NBS program has created a standardized path to facilitate early diagnosis of SMA and initiation of treatment. The goal is to provide timely access to those SMA infants in need of therapy to optimize motor function and prolong survival.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) are reported using 2 data sources: infection prevention and control (IPC), which surveys all THR and TKR using NHSN definitions and the Canadian International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CA) codes, and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses a systematic sampling process that involves an 8-day cycle schedule, modified NHSN definitions and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. We compared the similarities and discrepancies in THR/TKR SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP THR/TKR SSI data at 4 hospitals was performed. SSI data were collected between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. Demographic information and complex and total SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared for both THR and TKR surgeries. To determine whether both data sources reported similar trends over time, total SSIs by quarter were compared. Univariate analyses using a t test for age and the χ2 test for gender for complex SSIs and total SSIs was performed. The Pearson correlation and the Shapiro-Wilk test were used to assess the THR and TKR trends between the 2 data sources. A P value of <.05 was considered significant. Results: Following the removal of duplicates and missing data, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, were compared. Age, gender, and other demographic parameters were not significantly different. Total THR and TKR SSIs per 100 procedures using NSQIP data were significantly higher than the same rates using IPC data: THR, 2.25 versus 0.92 (P < .05) and TKR, 3.43 versus 1.26 (P < .05). Both IPC and NSQIP data indicated increasing total THR SSI rates over time, but with different magnitudes (r = 0.658). For total TKR SSI, the IPC rate decreased, whereas the NSQIP rate increased over the same period (r = 0.374). When superficial SSIs were excluded, the rates reported between IPC and NSQIP data by hospital and by procedure type were more comparable, with trends toward higher rates reported by NSQIP for THR than for TKR: THR, 1.19 versus 0.68 (P = 0.15) and TKR, 0.92 versus 0.80 (P = .68). Conclusions: Different approaches used to monitor SSIs following surgeries may lead to different results and trend patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are significantly higher than the IPC Alberta orthopedic population predominantly as a result of increased identification of superficial SSIs. Because the diagnosis of superficial SSIs may be less reliable, SSI reporting should focus on complex infections.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip and knee replacements (THRs and TKRs) are reported using the infection prevention and control (IPC) surveillance system, which surveys all THRs and TKRs using the NHSN definitions; and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses different definitions and sampling strategies. Deterministic matching of patient data from these sources was used to examine the overlap and discrepancies in SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP superficial, deep, and organ-space THR/TKR SSI data collected 30 days postoperatively from September 1, 2015, to March 31, 2018 was undertaken. To identify patients with procedures captured by both IPC and NSQIP, data were cleaned, duplicates removed, and patients matched 1:1 using year of birth, procedure facility, type, side, date, and time. Positive and negative agreement were assessed, and the Cohen κ values were calculated. The definitions and data capture methods used by both IPC and NSQIP were also compared. Results: There were 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, with 1,798 matched patients: IPC (23.8%) and NSQIP (88.3%). Moreover, 17 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP, including 9 superficial and 8 complex by IPC and 6 superficial and 11 complex by NSQIP. Also, 7 SSIs were identified only by IPC, of which 5 were superficial, and 36 SSIs were identified only by NSQIP, of which 28 were superficial (positive agreement, 0.44; negative agreement, 0.99; κ = .43). Excluding superficial SSIs, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC; and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.00; κ = 0.48). Conclusions: THR/TKR SSI rates reported by IPC and NSQIP were not comparable in this matched dataset. NSQIP identifies more superficial SSIs. Variations in data capture methods and definitions accounted for most of the discordance. Both surveillance systems are critically involved with improving patient outcomes following surgery. However, stakeholders need to be aware of these variations, and education should be provided to facilitate an understanding of the differences and their interpretation. Future work should explore other surgical procedures and larger data sets.
To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.
Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.
Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.
There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.
This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), like many rural states, faces clinical and research obstacles to which digital innovation is seen as a promising solution. To implement digital technology, a mobile health interest group was established to lay the foundation for an enterprise-wide digital health innovation platform. To create a foundation, an interprofessional team was established, and a series of formal networking events was conducted. Three online digital health training models were developed, and a full-day regional conference was held featuring nationally recognized speakers and panel discussions with clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates involved in digital health programs at UAMS. Finally, an institution-wide survey exploring the interest in and knowledge of digital health technologies was distributed. The networking events averaged 35–45 attendees. About 100 individuals attended the regional conference with positive feedback from participants. To evaluate mHealth knowledge at the institution, a survey was completed by 257 UAMS clinicians, researchers, and staff. It revealed that there are opportunities to increase training, communication, and collaboration for digital health implementation. The inclusion of the mobile health working group in the newly formed Institute for Digital Health and Innovation provides a nexus for healthcare providers and researches to facilitate translational research.
While previous studies have described career outcomes of physician-scientist trainees after graduation, trainee perceptions of research-intensive career pathways remain unclear. This study sought to identify the perceived interests, factors, and challenges associated with academic and research careers among predoctoral MD trainees, MD trainees with research-intense (>50%) career intentions (MD-RI), and MD-PhD trainees.
A 70-question survey was administered to 16,418 trainees at 32 academic medical centers from September 2012 to December 2014. MD vs. MD-RI (>50% research intentions) vs. MD-PhD trainee responses were compared by chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with academic and research career intentions.
There were 4433 respondents (27% response rate), including 2625 MD (64%), 653 MD-RI (15%), and 856 MD-PhD (21%) trainees. MD-PhDs were most interested in pursuing academia (85.8%), followed by MD-RIs (57.3%) and MDs (31.2%). Translational research was the primary career intention for MD-PhD trainees (42.9%). Clinical duties were the primary career intention for MD-RIs (51.9%) and MDs (84.2%). While 39.8% of MD-PhD respondents identified opportunities for research as the most important career selection factor, only 12.9% of MD-RI and 0.5% of MD respondents shared this perspective. Interest in basic research, translational research, clinical research, education, and the ability to identify a mentor were each independently associated with academic career intentions by multivariate regression.
Predoctoral MD, MD-RI, and MD-PhD trainees are unique cohorts with different perceptions and interests toward academic and research careers. Understanding these differences may help to guide efforts to mentor the next generation of physician-scientists.
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of various chronic diseases. One hypothesized pathway is via changes in diet quality. This study evaluated whether PTSD was associated with deterioration in diet quality over time.
Data were from 51 965 women in the Nurses' Health Study II PTSD sub-study followed over 20 years. Diet, assessed at 4-year intervals, was characterized via the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI). Based on information from the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and Short Screening Scale for DSM-IV PTSD, trauma/PTSD status was classified as no trauma exposure, prevalent exposure (trauma/PTSD onset before study entry), or new-onset (trauma/PTSD onset during follow-up). We further categorized women with prevalent exposure as having trauma with no PTSD symptoms, trauma with low PTSD symptoms, and trauma with high PTSD symptoms, and created similar categories for women with new-onset exposure, resulting in seven comparison groups. Multivariable linear mixed-effects spline models tested differences in diet quality changes by trauma/PTSD status over follow-up.
Overall, diet quality improved over time regardless of PTSD status. In age-adjusted models, compared to those with no trauma, women with prevalent high PTSD and women with new-onset high PTSD symptoms had 3.3% and 3.6% lower improvement in diet quality, respectively, during follow-up. Associations remained consistent after adjusting for health conditions, sociodemographics, and behavioral characteristics.
PTSD is associated with less healthy changes in overall diet quality over time. Poor diet quality may be one pathway linking PTSD with a higher risk of chronic disease development.