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A substantial fall in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during puberty in boys, but not girls, has been reported in Western populations. The fall in boys is believed to be due to hormonal changes – androgens have been shown to be associated with lower HDL-C, whereas oestrogens are associated with higher HDL-C. The fall in HDL-C during puberty was not observed, however, in a study of Moslem boys in Israel, nor in a group of Japanese boys. A diet high in phyto-oestrogens may account for the lack of a fall in HDL-C in these populations.
To examine the effect of dietary supplementation with phyto-oestrogens on the HDL-C concentration of adolescent boys from a Western population. We hypothesised that dietary supplementation of 50 mg of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein would produce a 12% higher HDL-C concentration than in controls at the end of a 6-week intervention period.
A randomised controlled trial.
Hellyer College in Burnie (Tasmania, Australia).
Adolescent boys (aged 16–18 years) were recruited through a letter sent to parents. A total of 132 eligible participants enrolled and five subjects withdrew from the trial.
No significant increase in HDL-C was observed in the treatment group (–0.02 mmol l–1, standard error (SE)=0.03, P = 0.53) or the placebo group (0.05 mmol l–1, SE = 0.03, P = 0.11).
Factors other than isolated dietary isoflavones may be responsible for the lack of fall in HDL-C during puberty in Japanese and Moslem boys.
Introduction: Brief cognitive tests such as the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) have been used to detect cognitive impairment and dementia in studies of stroke patients. However, there are few data on their validity for such use. We have evaluated their validity in detecting cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) and dementia in a community-based sample of first-ever stroke patients.
Methods: The standardized MMSE (S-MMSE) and the 16-item IQCODE were administered to 79 patients 1 year after a first-ever stroke. CIND and dementia were diagnosed independently using a comprehensive cognitive battery. The performances of the two tests were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Combined performance was evaluated when their scores were used in parallel (the “or rule”), in series (the “and rule”) or as a weighted sum (the “weighted sum rule”).
Results: Both tests were extremely poor at detecting CIND individually and in combination. For dementia, at traditional cut-points, the S-MMSE (≤23) was insensitive (0.50, 95% CI 0.16–0.84) and the IQCODE (≥3.30) nonspecific (0.63, 95% CI 0.51–0.75). An acceptable balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved for dementia using the “or rule” combination, but with only modest positive predictive value.
Conclusions: The S-MMSE and the IQCODE were individually poor at detecting CIND and dementia after a nonaphasic first-ever stroke. The combination was useful in detecting dementia but it does not replace the need for detailed neuropsychological tests.
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