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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The prevalence of combusted cigarette (CC) smoking among older adults is stagnant, with zero declines attributable to e-cigarette (EC) use. Normative beliefs predict quitting and switching to ECs (a behavior likely to yield health benefits for those unable to quit), so this study seeks to characterize the role of age in norms about CC and EC use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data come from Wave 5 (2018-2019) of the adult Population Assessment of Tobacco Use and Health (PATH) study, a nationally-representative, U.S. longitudinal cohort. Analyses were restricted to people with established CC use (smoked CCs in the past year, currently smoke regularly, and smoked ≥100 lifetime CCs; n=8,590). Cross-sectional weighted estimates of the prevalence of normative beliefs about CCs and ECs were calculated by age using the Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) method with Fay=0.3. We used chi-square tests to examine the association of age group (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, or ≥65) with the prevalence of 2 descriptive and 4 personal social norms. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The prevalence of the normative belief that most people disapprove of CCs (p DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Older adults are more likely than younger adults to endorse anti-tobacco norms, which prior work shows is associated with quitting smoking. These beliefs could be leveraged to create targeted communications towards older adults encouraging smoking cessation. More research is needed to assess age-related tobacco beliefs and switching from CC to EC.
Over the past 20 years, collaboration has become an essential aspect of archaeological practice in North America. In paying increased attention to the voices of descendant and local communities, archaeologists have become aware of the persistent injustices these often marginalized groups face. Building on growing calls for a responsive and engaged cultural heritage praxis, this forum article brings together a group of Native and non-Native scholars working at the nexus of history, ethnography, archaeology, and law in order to grapple with the role of archaeology in advancing social justice. Contributors to this article touch on a diverse range of critical issues facing Indigenous communities in the United States, including heritage law, decolonization, foodways, community-based participatory research, and pedagogy. Uniting these commentaries is a shared emphasis on research practices that promote Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In drawing these case studies together, we articulate a sovereignty-based model of social justice that facilitates Indigenous control over cultural heritage in ways that address their contemporary needs and goals.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD), an often-irreversible movement disorder typically caused by exposure to antipsychotics, most commonly affects the face, mouth, and tongue and may be debilitating
To investigate TD burden on patients’ quality of life and functionality
Adults with clinician-confirmed schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder participated in an observational study. Approximately half (47%) ofparticipants had a clinician-confirmed TD diagnosis. Participants completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey® (SF-12v2), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), social withdrawal subscale of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (SW-ISMI), and rated the severity of their TD symptoms. Group differences in SF-12v2 physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS), Q-LES-Q-SF, and SW-ISMI scores were analyzed.
TD (n=79) and non-TD (n=90) groups were similar in age, gender, and number of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. TD patients reported significantly worse scores on PCS (P=0.003), Q-LES-Q-SF (P<0.001) and SW-ISMI (P<0.001) than non-TD patients. The difference in PCS exceeded the established minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 3 points. When stratified by TD severity, those with more severe symptoms had significantly worse Q-LES-Q-SF (P<0.001) and SW-ISMI (P=0.006) scores than those with less severe symptoms. Differences in PCS (P=0.12) and MCS (P=0.89) were in the expected direction and exceeded the MCID.
Among patients with psychiatric disorders, TD is associated with significant physical health burden and incremental mental health burden. TD severity is also associated with lower overall quality of life and greater social withdrawal.
Presented at: Psych Congress; September 16–19, 2017; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including tardive dyskinesia (TD), may result from exposure to antipsychotics. TD is often irreversible, may be debilitating, and cause additional burden to patients with underlying psychiatric conditions.
To assess the impact of developing TD, both with and without other EPS, on healthcare resource utilization (HRU).
Data on patients receiving antipsychotics who had schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, or bipolar disorder were extracted from a Medicaid claims database. Patients from the TD cohorts (TD+EPS and TD non-EPS) were matched to those in the non-TD/EPS cohort at ∼1:5 ratio. HRU outcomes associated with TD were assessed.
TD+EPS (n=289) and TD non-EPS (n=394) cohorts were matched with 1398 and 1922 control patients, respectively. The percentage of patients with all-cause and mental disorder-related inpatient admissions increased from baseline to follow-up in the TD+EPS (12.8% and 12.5%, respectively) and TD non-EPS (16.0% and 13.5%) cohorts, in contrast with slight decreases (∼3%) in matched controls. A higher percentage of patients in the TD cohorts had medical admissions/visits and claims for drugs that might be used to address TD or EPS than their matched controls at baseline and follow-up. The within-cohort change from baseline to follow-up in the use of potential drugs for TD or EPS was similar between the TD cohorts and their matched controls; however, both TD cohorts exhibited a larger increase in crisis–non-specific psychotherapy services versus matched controls.
Results demonstrated increased HRU in TD patients with or without other pre-existing EPS, compared with matched controls.
Presented at: Psych Congress; September 16–19, 2017; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Studies were conducted in 1988, 1989, and 1992 in Plains, GA to measure effects of paraquat and alachlor on ‘Florunner’ peanut. Peanut treated with paraquat (0.14 kg ai/ha) plus alachlor (3.4 kg ai/ha) applied at vegetative emergence (VE), or paraquat plus alachlor VE followed by paraquat 28 days after emergence (DAE) were compared with a nontreated control. Both herbicide treatments reduced peanut foliage biomass at 65 DAE in 1989 and 1992. Herbicide treatments did not affect foliage biomass 90 DAE in 1988 and 122 DAE in 1989, but paraquat plus alachlor followed by paraquat reduced foliage biomass at 122 DAE in 1992. Pod biomass, measured at 90 and 65 DAE in 1988 and 1992, respectively, was reduced by herbicides. However, pod biomass did not differ among treatments 122 DAE in 1989 and 1992. Percent reflectance from the peanut canopy measured no effects from herbicides in 1988. However, in 1989 and 1992 herbicides applied sequentially reduced peanut canopy development. Peanut treated with a single herbicide and sequentially took longer to mature. Once optimum maturity was reached, peanut yields were not reduced.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) provide many advantages as a model organism for studying ocular disease and development, and there is great interest in the ability to non-invasively assess their photoreceptor mosaic. Despite recent applications of scanning light ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and gonioscopy to in vivo imaging of the adult zebrafish eye, current techniques either lack accurate scaling information (limiting quantitative analyses) or require euthanizing the fish (precluding longitudinal analyses). Here we describe improved methods for imaging the adult zebrafish retina using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Transgenic fli1:eGFP zebrafish were imaged using the Bioptigen Envisu R2200 broadband source OCT with a 12-mm telecentric probe to measure axial length and a mouse retina probe to acquire retinal volume scans subtending 1.2 × 1.2 mm nominally. En face summed volume projections were generated from the volume scans using custom software that allows the user to create contours tailored to specific retinal layer(s) of interest. Following imaging, the eyes were dissected for ex vivo fluorescence microscopy, and measurements of blood vessel branch points were compared to those made from the en face OCT images to determine the OCT lateral scale as a function of axial length. Using this scaling model, we imaged the photoreceptor layer of five wild-type zebrafish and quantified the density and packing geometry of the UV cone submosaic. Our in vivo cone density measurements agreed with measurements from previously published histology values. The method presented here allows accurate, quantitative assessment of cone structure in vivo and will be useful for longitudinal studies of the zebrafish cone mosaics.
The ability to noninvasively image the cone photoreceptor mosaic holds significant potential as a diagnostic for retinal disease. Central to the realization of this potential is the development of sensitive metrics for characterizing the organization of the mosaic. Here we evaluated previously-described and newly-developed (Fourier- and Radon-based) methods of measuring cone orientation in simulated and real images of the parafoveal cone mosaic. The proposed algorithms correlated well across both simulated and real mosaics, suggesting that each algorithm provides an accurate description of photoreceptor orientation. Despite high agreement between algorithms, each performed differently in response to image intensity variation and cone coordinate jitter. The integration property of the Fourier transform allowed the Fourier-based method to be resistant to cone coordinate jitter and perform the most robustly of all three algorithms. Conversely, when there is good image quality but unreliable cone identification, the Radon algorithm performed best. Finally, in cases where the cone coordinate reliability was excellent, the method previously described by Pum and colleagues performed best. These descriptors are complementary to conventional descriptive metrics of the cone mosaic, such as cell density and spacing, and have the potential to aid in the detection of photoreceptor pathology.
For Wallace Stevens, the romantic period extends from the late eighteenth century through the late nineteenth century, and it includes both English and American writers. The chief romantic influences on Stevens' poetry include Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, Emerson, Whitman, and Tennyson. (There are lesser echoes of Blake and Coleridge; Byron seems to have had little impact.) Stevens was born in 1879, and both Whitman and Tennyson died in 1892. For Stevens, then, romanticism was not a remote historical episode. It overlapped with his own life, and it formed the immediate historical background to his life's work as a poet. Moreover, in Stevens' conception, romanticism is not just a single historical period. It is a recurrent mode of the poetic imagination, and for Stevens that mode constitutes the wellspring of all poetic vitality.
In a letter of 1940 - when he was sixty years old and writing the poems included in Parts of a World - Stevens succinctly sketched out a comprehensive theory of poetic history as a cycle. The cycle begins in romanticism, as a phase of imaginative vitality, moves in a degenerative direction leading to exhaustion, and then returns to romanticism. “I suppose that the way of all mind is from romanticism to realism, to fatalism and then to indifferentism, unless the cycle re-commences and the thing goes from indifferentism back to romanticism all over again” (L 350). The middle terms in this sequence take their inflection from the direction of the sequence. For Stevens, romanticism is the highest form of imaginative fulfillment. “Realism” might seem a neutral or even positive term, but “fatalism” has a sinister ring, and “indifferentism” is unmistakably negative in connotation. Indifferentism is a blank absence of interest and pleasure in the world. “Realism” and “fatalism” thus measure out stages in the descent from fulfillment to despair.
The hypothesis that dichromatic behavior on a clinical anomaloscope
can be explained by the complement and arrangement of the long- (L) and
middle-wavelength (M) pigment genes was tested. It was predicted that
dichromacy is associated with an X-chromosome pigment gene array
capable of producing only a single functional pigment type. The
simplest case of this is when deletion has left only a single
X-chromosome pigment gene. The production of a single L or M pigment
type can also result from rearrangements in which multiple genes
remain. Often, only the two genes at the 5′ end of the array are
expressed; thus, dichromacy is also predicted to occur if one of these
is defective or encodes a defective pigment, or if both of them encode
pigments with identical spectral sensitivities. Subjects were 128 males
who accepted the full range of admixtures of the two primary lights as
matching the comparison light on a Neitz or Nagel anomaloscope.
Strikingly, examination of the L and M pigment genes revealed a
potential cause for a color-vision defect in all 128 dichromats. This
indicates that the major component of color-vision deficiency could be
attributed to alterations of the pigment genes or their regulatory
regions in all cases, and the variety of gene arrangements associated
with dichromacy is cataloged here. However, a fraction of the
dichromats (17 out of 128; 13%) had genes predicted to encode pigments
that would result in two populations of cones with different spectral
sensitivities. Nine of the 17 were predicted to have two pigments with
slightly different spectral peaks (usually ≤ 2.5 nm) and eight had
genes which specified pigments identical in peak absorption, but
different in amino acid positions previously associated with optical
density differences. In other subjects, reported previously, the same
small spectral differences were associated with anomalous trichromacy
rather than dichromacy. It appears that when the spectral difference
specified by the genes is very small, the amount of residual
red–green color vision measured varies; some individuals test as
dichromats, others test as anomalous trichromats. The discrepancy is
probably partly attributable to testing method differences and partly
to a difference in performance not perception, but it seems there must
also be cases in which other factors, for example, cone ratio,
contribute to a person's ability to extract a color signal from a
small spectral difference.
The local structural information around the germanium atom in boron doped SiGe alloys is important in understanding the dopant diffusion mechanisms. Epitaxial SiGe test structures with B and C markers were grown on Si substrates by using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). The local structure around the Ge atom was probed using Ge K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to determine the effects of the B and C on the Ge sites. The concentration profiles obtained from secondary ion mass spectroscopy are correlated with the Ge XAFS results. The modifications on the local structure around the Ge atoms are revealed from the multiple scattering analyses on the Ge near-neighbors. First and second shell XAFS fits to the B doped SiGe samples indicate a direct evidence of the Ge trapping of the B atoms whereas the C is randomly distributed to the Si lattice sites.
Photonic crystals are of interest for GHz transmission applications, including rapid switching, GHz filters, and phased-array technology. 3D fabrication by Robocasting enables moldless printing of high solid loading slurries into structures such as the “woodpile” structures used to fabricate dielectric photonic band gap crystals. In this work, tunable dielectric materials were developed and printed into woodpile structures via solid freefrom fabrication (SFF) toward demonstration of tunable photonic crystals. Barium strontium titanate ceramics possess interesting electrical properties including high permittivity, low loss, and high tunability. This paper discusses the processing route and dielectric characterization of (BaxSr1-XTiO3):MgO ceramic composites, toward fabrication of tunable dielectric photonic band gap crystals.
Detailed interviews were conducted with 1523 married professional and managerial employees of a major US corporation to test associations of acute and chronic occupational and domestic stress with DSM-III-R major depression and current depressive symptoms. After controlling for demographic and clinical risk factors, both sources of stress were significantly associated with the two measures of depression. On the other hand, neither the demographic and clinical risk factors, nor several psychosocial characteristics (social support, sense of mastery and organizational commitment) moderated the relationship between stress and depression.
An impairment in lymphocyte response to mitogen stimulation, a correlate of cell-mediated immunity, has been reported in patients with depressive illness. To investigate whether such impairment in lymphocyte function is related to excessive secretion of cortisol, an immunosuppressive hormone, we compared mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in three groups of subjects: (1) depressed patients with elevated 24-hour urinary free Cortisol (UFC) excretion; (2) depressed patients with normal UFC excretion; and (3) normal controls. Depressed patients in both groups showed significant reductions in lymphocyte mitogenic activity, in comparison with the normal controls, but the two depressive groups did not significantly differ from each other in their lymphocytic responses to any of the mitogens used. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found, within depressed patients, between UFC excretion and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Depression is therefore associated with an impairment in lymphocyte function that cannot be explained solely on the basis of increased cortisol secretion.
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