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Morphological awareness (MA) is an important predictor of reading outcomes in different languages. The consonantal root is a salient feature of Arabic lexical structure and critical to MA. The goals of this study were to (a) develop a measure of root awareness (RA) as one dimension of MA in Arabic, and (b) validate the RA measure by predicting reading outcomes in an Arabic population. A set of RA items was administered to 194 Arabic-speaking third-grade children. A one-factor model was specified using confirmatory factor analysis to examine the model fit of the RA measure. A structural equation model was then developed to examine the relation between the RA measure and important reading outcome measures including word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The results of these analyses indicated good model fit, and the RA measure accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in the outcomes. The establishment of the RA measure is an important preliminary step to efficiently assessing MA in Arabic and could serve as an integral tool for studying reading development.
Experiences of bereavement can be stressful and are frequently complicated by emotional, familial, and financial issues. Some—though not all—caregivers may benefit from bereavement support. While considered standard within palliative care services in Australia, bereavement support is not widely utilized by family caregivers. There is little research focused on the forms of bereavement support desired or required by family caregivers, how such care is viewed, and/or how bereavement support is experienced. This study examined the experiences of bereaved family caregivers and their impressions of and interactions with bereavement support.
This paper reports on one aspect of a broader study designed to explore a range of experiences of patients and caregivers to and through palliative care. Focusing on experiences of bereavement, it draws on qualitative semistructured interviews with 15 family caregivers of palliative care patients within a specialist palliative care unit of an Australian metropolitan hospital. The interviews for this stage of the study were initiated 3–9 months after an initial interview with a family caregiver, during which time the palliative patient had died, and they covered family caregivers' experiences of bereavement and bereavement support. Interviews were digitally audiotaped and transcribed in full. A thematic analysis was conducted utilizing the framework approach wherein interview transcripts were reviewed, key themes identified, and explanations developed.
The research identified four prevalent themes: (1) sociocultural constructions of bereavement support as for the incapable or socially isolated; (2) perceptions of bereavement support services as narrow in scope; (3) the “personal” character of bereavement and subsequent incompatibility with formalized support, and (4) issues around the timing and style of approaches to being offered support.
Significance of results:
Systematic pre-bereavement planning and careful communication about the services offered by palliative care bereavement support centers may improve receipt of support among bereaved family caregivers in need.
The purposes of this study were to examine the dimensions underlying morphological awareness (MA) in Arabic (construct validity) and to determine how well MA predicted reading (predictive validity). Ten MA tasks varying in key dimensions (oral vs. written, single word vs. sentence contexts, and standard vs. local dialect) and two reading tasks (real word and pseudoword reading) were administered to 102 Arabic-speaking Grade 3 children in Abu-Dhabi. Factor analysis of the MA tasks yielded one predominant factor, supporting the construct validity of MA in Arabic. Closer inspection revealed that this factor had two subcomponents, oral and written. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for age and gender, indicated that both the one- and the two-factor solutions accounted for 48% of the variance in word reading, and 40% of the variance in pseudoword reading, supporting the predictive validity of MA. Implications for future research, assessment, and instruction are discussed.
Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) invades northern Great Plains rangelands. On the Sheyenne National Grassland in southeastern North Dakota, three research sites, each with a different level of Kentucky bluegrass invasion, were chosen to evaluate effectiveness of burning and burning–herbicide combinations to control Kentucky bluegrass. Initial Kentucky bluegrass invasion levels were 37%, 77%, and 91% for LOW, MODERATE, and HIGH invaded sites, respectively. Within each invaded site, four replicated strips (20 by 60 m) were established, with half of each strip burned in late October 2005 and the other half burned in early May 2006. Herbicide treatments of (1) no herbicide, (2) 2.24 kg ha−1 of glyphosate, and (3) 0.43 kg ha−1 of imazapic were randomly assigned to 10 by 20 m subplots within each burn. Control plots were established at the same time. Relative basal cover of native grass, native forb, and Kentucky bluegrass was estimated annually using 50 10-point frames within each subplot. On the HIGH site in 2006, fall-burned plots with a spring glyphosate application had three times the native grass cover and only one fourth of the Kentucky bluegrass cover compared with controls. Similar results with the same treatment occurred at the MODERATE site. Native grasses became the most abundant plant community on these plots in the MODERATE and HIGH sites within 1 yr. Treatment differences were transitory, and the LOW site differed from the MODERATE and HIGH sites. In 2007, on fall-burned plots with spring glyphosate application, the amount of Kentucky bluegrass was 14% and 30%, and native grass species were 52% and 42% on the MODERATE and HIGH sites, respectively, which was similar to the initial values on the LOW site. These data emphasize the importance of initial invasion level in developing restoration strategies and provide evidence burning and herbicide combinations can be valuable management tools even on heavily invaded grasslands.
Cognitive impairment (CI) that arises in some older adults limits independence and decreases quality of life. Cognitive stimulation programs delivered by professional therapists have been shown to help maintain cognitive abilities, but the costs of such programming are prohibitive. The present study explored the feasibility and efficacy of using long-term care homes' volunteers to administer a cognitive stimulation program to residents.
Thirty-six resident participants and 16 volunteers were alternately assigned to one of two parallel groups: a control group (CG) or stimulation group (SG). For eight weeks, three times each week, CG participants met for standard “friendly visits” (casual conversation between a resident and volunteer) and SG participants met to work through a variety of exercises to stimulate residents’ reasoning, attention, and memory abilities. Resident participants were pre- and post-tested using the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence–Second Edition, Test of Memory, and Learning-Senior Edition, a modified Letter Sorting test (LS), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Action Word Verbal Fluency Test.
Two-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for dementia diagnosis indicated statistically greater improvements in the stimulation participants than in the control participants in Immediate Verbal Memory, p = 0.011; Non-Verbal Memory, p = 0.012; Learning, p = 0.016; and Verbal Fluency, p = 0.024.
The feasibility and efficiency of a volunteer-administered cognitive stimulation program was demonstrated. Longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes are recommended in order to continue investigating the breadth and depth volunteer roles in the maintenance of the cognitive abilities of older adults.
The structure of La2LiTaO6 has been derived from the powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data. La2LiTaO6 is monoclinic with unit-cell parameters a = 5.621(1) Å, b = 5.776(1) Å, c = 7.954(2) Å, β = 90.34(2)°, space group P21/n (14), and Z = 2. The structure of La2LiTaO6 is an ordered perovskite with alternating Li and Ta octahedra. A new set of powder XRD data (d-spacing and intensity listing) has been generated to replace entry 00-039-0897 within the Powder Diffraction File. The newly elucidated structural data for La2LiTaO6 shall facilitate quantitative analysis of this impurity phase which is often observed during synthesis of the fast-ion conductor phase Li5La3Ta2O12.
High quality learning is extensive, well integrated, deep, and supports the use of knowledge in new situations that require adaptation of what has been learned previously. This book reviews current research on the nature of high quality learning and the factors that facilitate or inhibit it. The book addresses relationships between quality of learning and learners' dispositions, teaching methods, cognitive strategies, assessment and technologies that can support learning. The chapters provide theoretical analyses, reports of classroom research, and suggestions for practical application for both teachers and learners. The book will be of value to teachers at all levels of education and provides guidance for students about how to approach classroom tasks in order to develop high quality learning.