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This paper reports a case of chondrosarcoma deriving from the left arytenoid cartilage that was resected via an anterior laryngofissure using the Tritube in situ, thus eliminating the need for a (temporary) tracheostomy.
A 49-year-old male with a chondrosarcoma deriving from the left arytenoid was treated with local resection of the tumour through an anterior laryngofissure. The intralaryngeal lumen was too small for a normal endotracheal tube. Using the Tritube (outer diameter, 4.4 mm), the patient could be intubated and ventilated adequately during the procedure. The Tritube did not obstruct the surgical view during the procedure.
The Tritube can be used for intubation and ventilation even in patients with a very narrow airway lumen, and does not obstruct the field of view during open laryngeal surgery, thereby avoiding the need for peri-operative tracheostomy.
The mental health of slum residents is under-researched globally, and depression is a significant source of worldwide morbidity. Brazil's large slum-dwelling population is often considered part of a general urban-poor demographic. This study aims to identify the prevalence and distribution of depression in Brazil and compare mental health inequalities between slum and non-slum populations.
Data were obtained from Brazil's 2019 National Health Survey. Slum residence was defined based on the UN-Habitat definition for slums and estimated from survey responses. Doctor-diagnosed depression, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)-screened depression and presence of undiagnosed depression (PHQ-9-screened depression in the absence of a doctor's diagnosis) were analysed as primary outcomes, alongside depressive symptom severity as a secondary outcome. Prevalence estimates for all outcomes were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of socioeconomic characteristics, including slum residence, with primary outcomes. Depressive symptom severity was analysed using generalised ordinal logistic regression.
Nationally, the prevalence of doctor diagnosed, PHQ-9 screened and undiagnosed depression were 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.5–10.3), 10.8% (95% CI: 10.4–11.2) and 6.9% (95% CI: 6.6–7.2), respectively. Slum residents exhibited lower levels of doctor-diagnosed depression than non-slum urban residents (8.6%; 95% CI: 7.9–9.3 v. 10.7%; 95% CI: 10.2–11.2), while reporting similar levels of PHQ-9-screened depression (11.3%; 95% CI: 10.4–12.1 v. 11.3%; 95% CI: 10.8–11.8). In adjusted regression models, slum residence was associated with a lower likelihood of doctor diagnosed (adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR): 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77–0.97) and PHQ-9-screened depression (adjusted OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78–0.97). Slum residents showed a greater likelihood of reporting less severe depressive symptoms. There were significant ethnic/racial disparities in the likelihood of reporting doctor-diagnosed depression. Black individuals were less likely to report doctor-diagnosed depression (adjusted OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.57–0.75) than white individuals. A similar pattern was observed in Mixed Black (adjusted OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66–0.79) and other (adjusted OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45–0.88) ethnic/racial groups. Slum residents self-reporting a diagnosis of one or more chronic non-communicable diseases had greater odds of exhibiting all three primary depression outcomes.
Substantial inequalities characterise the distribution of depression in Brazil including in slum settings. People living in slums may have lower diagnosed rates of depression than non-slum urban residents. Understanding the mechanisms behind the discrepancy in depression diagnosis between slum and non-slum populations is important to inform health policy in Brazil, including in addressing potential gaps in access to mental healthcare.
A mixed microbial culture able to transform alachlor at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1 was obtained from alachlor-treated soil after an enrichment period of 84 days. The microbial community was composed of seven strains of bacteria. No single isolate was able to utilize alachlor as a sole source of carbon. There was no alachlor left in the enriched culture after a 14-day incubation, but only 12% of the 14C-ring-labeled alachlor was converted to 14CO2 through ring cleavage during 14 days in the basal medium amended with alachlor as a sole carbon source. The presence of sucrose as an alternative carbon source decreased the mineralization potential of the enriched culture, but sucrose increased the mineralizing ability of a three-member mixed culture. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed that there were four unidentified metabolites of alachlor produced by the enriched culture. Sucrose decreased the amount of two of the four metabolites. The absence of a noticeable decline in radioactivity beyond the initial 12% suggested that the side chain of alachlor was utilized as carbon source by the enriched culture. Little difference in radioactivity between growth medium and cell-free supernatant of the growth medium suggested that the carbon in the ring was not incorporated into the cells of the degrading microorganisms.
Inadvertent (or incidental) parathyroidectomy can occur during thyroidectomy. However, the factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy remain unclear. This study aimed to report the rate of inadvertent parathyroidectomy during thyroidectomy and associated risk factors.
Variables including fine needle aspiration cytology findings, age, sex, thyroid weight, concurrent neck dissection, extent of thyroidectomy, and the presence of cancer and parathyroid tissue within the specimen were recorded for 266 patients. The incidence of post-operative hypocalcaemia was also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent. Univariate analysis revealed that cancer and concurrent neck dissection predicted inadvertent parathyroidectomy. On multivariate analysis, only concurrent neck dissection remained an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy: it was associated with a fourfold increase in inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent and concurrent neck dissection was identified as an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
Recent studies suggest that psychotic experiences (PE) in the general population are associated with an increased risk of self-injurious behaviour. Both the magnitude of this association and the level of adjustment for confounders vary among studies. A meta-analysis was performed to integrate the available evidence. The influence of possible confounders, including variably defined depression, was assessed.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted including general population studies reporting on the risk of self-injurious behaviour in individuals with PE. Studies were identified by a systematic search strategy in Pubmed, PsycINFO and Embase. Reported effect sizes were extracted and meta-analytically pooled.
The risk of self-injurious behaviour was 3.20 times higher in individuals with PE compared with those without. Subanalyses showed that PE were associated with self-harm, suicidal ideation as well as suicidal attempts. All studies had scope for considerable residual confounding; effect sizes adjusted for depression were significantly smaller than effect sizes unadjusted for depression. In the longitudinal studies, adjustment for psychopathology resulted in a 74% reduction in excess risk.
PE are associated with self-injurious behaviour, suggesting they have potential as passive markers of suicidality. However, the association is confounded and several methodological issues remain, particularly how to separate PE from the full range of connected psychopathology in determining any specific association with self-injurious behaviour. Given evidence that PE represent an indicator of severity of non-psychotic psychopathology, the association between PE and self-injurious behaviour probably reflects a greater likelihood of self-injurious behaviour in more severe states of mental distress.
To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested for SBV by qRT–PCR assay. At 24 days post-inoculation both animals were subjected to necropsy and the genital organs and lymph nodes draining these organs were also tested for SBV RNA (qRT–PCR). After SBV infection both animals in the study showed viraemia (qRT–PCR) with fever and diarrhoea. SBV RNA could be detected in semen from both animals. The highest SBV RNA concentrations in semen were found in the first week (days 4–7 post-inoculation) but concentrations were relatively low (Ct values 30–39). Viable SBV was only isolated from blood samples and not from semen or genital tissues.
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in many mammals including cattle, deer and brushtail possum. The aim of this study was to estimate the strength of association, using model selection (AICc) regression analyses, between the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB in New Zealand and annual costs of TB control, namely disease control in livestock, in wildlife or in a combination of the two. There was more support for curved (concave up) than linear models which related the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB to the annual control costs. The curved, concave-up, best-fitting relationships showed diminishing returns with no positive asymptote and implied TB eradication is feasible in New Zealand.
Description of two siblings with unexplained, progressive, perceptive hearing loss after head trauma.
Two siblings aged six and eight years old with bilateral, intermittent but progressive hearing loss.
These patients had a c.1172G>A (p.Ser391Asn) mutation in the SLC26A4 gene, which has not previously been reported and which caused Pendred or enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the perceptive hearing loss, computed tomography findings and mutation analysis. The patients were each fitted with a cochlear implant because of their severe, progressive, perceptive hearing loss with deep fluctuations. The results were good.
Further testing for the presence of an enlarged vestibular aqueduct is recommended when children present with sudden progression in perceptive hearing loss, whether or not in combination with head trauma. Cochlear implantation is indicated in patients with persistent, progressive hearing loss that leads to deafness. Implantation can be undertaken successfully despite cochlear hypoplasia.
Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (β) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed.
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a viral disease causing dehydration, diarrhoea and death in pigs. The disease is widespread in pig-producing areas of the world but does not occur in Australia. A mathematical model of TGE spread within a pig herd is proposed and calibrated by reference to published data. The model is then applied to two situations of special interest; first to estimate the delay before detection of TGE (6 to over 30 days) when infection is first introduced into a herd of domestic or feral pigs, and second the effect of the disease in a population of feral pigs (could become endemic if transmission is high).
What determines where a species lives? And what determines its abundance? This book takes a fresh approach to some of the classic questions in ecology. Despite great progress in the twentieth century much more remains to be done before we can provide full answers to these questions. The methods described and deployed in this book point the way forward. The core message of the book is that the key insights come from understanding what determines population growth rate, and that application of this approach will make ecology a more predictive science. Topics covered include population regulation, density-dependence, the ecological niche, resource and interference competition, habitat fragmentation and the ecological effects of environmental stress, together with applications to conservation biology, wildlife management, human demography and ecotoxicology. After a substantial introduction by the editors the book brings together contributions from leading scientists from Australia, New Zealand, North America, Europe and the U.K.