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Inadvertent (or incidental) parathyroidectomy can occur during thyroidectomy. However, the factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy remain unclear. This study aimed to report the rate of inadvertent parathyroidectomy during thyroidectomy and associated risk factors.
Variables including fine needle aspiration cytology findings, age, sex, thyroid weight, concurrent neck dissection, extent of thyroidectomy, and the presence of cancer and parathyroid tissue within the specimen were recorded for 266 patients. The incidence of post-operative hypocalcaemia was also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent. Univariate analysis revealed that cancer and concurrent neck dissection predicted inadvertent parathyroidectomy. On multivariate analysis, only concurrent neck dissection remained an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy: it was associated with a fourfold increase in inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent and concurrent neck dissection was identified as an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
Recent studies suggest that psychotic experiences (PE) in the general population are associated with an increased risk of self-injurious behaviour. Both the magnitude of this association and the level of adjustment for confounders vary among studies. A meta-analysis was performed to integrate the available evidence. The influence of possible confounders, including variably defined depression, was assessed.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted including general population studies reporting on the risk of self-injurious behaviour in individuals with PE. Studies were identified by a systematic search strategy in Pubmed, PsycINFO and Embase. Reported effect sizes were extracted and meta-analytically pooled.
The risk of self-injurious behaviour was 3.20 times higher in individuals with PE compared with those without. Subanalyses showed that PE were associated with self-harm, suicidal ideation as well as suicidal attempts. All studies had scope for considerable residual confounding; effect sizes adjusted for depression were significantly smaller than effect sizes unadjusted for depression. In the longitudinal studies, adjustment for psychopathology resulted in a 74% reduction in excess risk.
PE are associated with self-injurious behaviour, suggesting they have potential as passive markers of suicidality. However, the association is confounded and several methodological issues remain, particularly how to separate PE from the full range of connected psychopathology in determining any specific association with self-injurious behaviour. Given evidence that PE represent an indicator of severity of non-psychotic psychopathology, the association between PE and self-injurious behaviour probably reflects a greater likelihood of self-injurious behaviour in more severe states of mental distress.
To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested for SBV by qRT–PCR assay. At 24 days post-inoculation both animals were subjected to necropsy and the genital organs and lymph nodes draining these organs were also tested for SBV RNA (qRT–PCR). After SBV infection both animals in the study showed viraemia (qRT–PCR) with fever and diarrhoea. SBV RNA could be detected in semen from both animals. The highest SBV RNA concentrations in semen were found in the first week (days 4–7 post-inoculation) but concentrations were relatively low (Ct values 30–39). Viable SBV was only isolated from blood samples and not from semen or genital tissues.
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in many mammals including cattle, deer and brushtail possum. The aim of this study was to estimate the strength of association, using model selection (AICc) regression analyses, between the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB in New Zealand and annual costs of TB control, namely disease control in livestock, in wildlife or in a combination of the two. There was more support for curved (concave up) than linear models which related the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB to the annual control costs. The curved, concave-up, best-fitting relationships showed diminishing returns with no positive asymptote and implied TB eradication is feasible in New Zealand.
Description of two siblings with unexplained, progressive, perceptive hearing loss after head trauma.
Two siblings aged six and eight years old with bilateral, intermittent but progressive hearing loss.
These patients had a c.1172G>A (p.Ser391Asn) mutation in the SLC26A4 gene, which has not previously been reported and which caused Pendred or enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the perceptive hearing loss, computed tomography findings and mutation analysis. The patients were each fitted with a cochlear implant because of their severe, progressive, perceptive hearing loss with deep fluctuations. The results were good.
Further testing for the presence of an enlarged vestibular aqueduct is recommended when children present with sudden progression in perceptive hearing loss, whether or not in combination with head trauma. Cochlear implantation is indicated in patients with persistent, progressive hearing loss that leads to deafness. Implantation can be undertaken successfully despite cochlear hypoplasia.
Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (β) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed.
Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a viral disease causing dehydration, diarrhoea and death in pigs. The disease is widespread in pig-producing areas of the world but does not occur in Australia. A mathematical model of TGE spread within a pig herd is proposed and calibrated by reference to published data. The model is then applied to two situations of special interest; first to estimate the delay before detection of TGE (6 to over 30 days) when infection is first introduced into a herd of domestic or feral pigs, and second the effect of the disease in a population of feral pigs (could become endemic if transmission is high).
What determines where a species lives? And what determines its abundance? This book takes a fresh approach to some of the classic questions in ecology. Despite great progress in the twentieth century much more remains to be done before we can provide full answers to these questions. The methods described and deployed in this book point the way forward. The core message of the book is that the key insights come from understanding what determines population growth rate, and that application of this approach will make ecology a more predictive science. Topics covered include population regulation, density-dependence, the ecological niche, resource and interference competition, habitat fragmentation and the ecological effects of environmental stress, together with applications to conservation biology, wildlife management, human demography and ecotoxicology. After a substantial introduction by the editors the book brings together contributions from leading scientists from Australia, New Zealand, North America, Europe and the U.K.
This study assessed the ability of otolaryngologists to diagnose and grade reflux disease at rigid endoscopy. Twenty-one out of 25 senior otolaryngologists who were questioned by means of a telephone survey said that if they find evidence of reflux disease at rigid endoscopy of the oesophagus and larynx, their practice is to place the patient on a proton pump inhibitor for six weeks without requesting pH and manometry studies, and without referral to a gastroenterologist. Over a two year period, 21 patients were diagnosed as having reflux disease at rigid endoscopy. This was based on the finding of fluid and erythema in the aerodigestive tract and upper oesophagus. Subsequent oesophageal pH and manometry was performed. Nine out of 21 patients were confirmed as refluxers. This demonstrated an accuracy of less than 50 per cent when using these findings to diagnose gastro-oesophageal reflux at rigid endoscopy.
The thermal properties of carbon nanotubes are strongly dependent on their unique structure and size, and show promise as an ideal material for thermal management on the micro- and macro-scale. The specific heat of nanotubes is similar to that of two-dimensional graphene at high temperatures, but is sensitive to the effects of rolling the the graphene sheet into a small cylinder at low temperatures. Specifically, the acoustic phonon modes are stiffened due to the cylindrical geometry, and the phonon spectrum is quantized due to the small diameter of the tube. In bundles of single-walled nanotubes, the specific heat is a sensitive probe of inter-tube mechanical coupling. Measurements of the specific heat show that inter-tube coupling is relatively weak, and show direct evidence for quantum effects. The thermal conductivity of nanotubes should reflect the on-tube phonon structure. Aligned bundles of SWNTs show a high thermal conductivity (>200 W/m-K at room temperature), and possible quantization effects at low temperature.