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Effect of quantity and nutritional quality of dietary proteins on the content of mRNA of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) was studied in rat liver and kidney. IGFBP-1 mRNA content per unit RNA increased in liver and kidney of rats fed on a protein-free diet and in those of fasted rats compared with that in the rats fed on a casein diet. When rats were given a gluten diet for 7 d, IGFBP-1 mRNA content in liver did not change significantly but that in kidney increased considerably compared with that in those organs of the rats fed on the casein diet. Because IGFBP-1 mRNA has been demonstrated both in liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells (Takenaka et al. 1991), the effect of the protein-free diet on these two types of cells has been studied. An increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA content under protein deprivation was observed in both liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells, suggesting that these two types of cells are regulated in a similar mode as far as IGFBP-1 mRNA content is concerned. The physiological and nutritional significance of the previously stated results on protein anabolism are discussed when considered together with our previous observations on the plasma concentrations of IGF-1 (Takahashi et al. 1990) and IGFBP (Umezawa et al. 1991) and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA content in liver (Miura et al. 1991).
In order to investigate the initial oxidation process Qf the Si (111) surface, we have studied the molecular beam deposited Si0 2/Si(111)-7×7 interface structure using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction geometry. We suggest a three-fold symmetry structural model composed of stacking fault layer, dimer layer and additional ordered atoms. The three-fold symmetry structure comes from the preference for oxidation in the faulted half of the 7×7 structure.
Surface superstructures (reconstructed structures) have been observed by many authors. However, it is not easy to confirm that a superstructure does exist at an interface between two solid layers. The present paper reports a direct observation, by a grazing incidence x-ray diffraction technique with use of synchrotron radiation, of superstructures at the interface. Firstly, the boron-induced R30° reconstruction at the Si interface has been investigated. At the a Si/Si(111) interface, boron atoms at 1/3 ML are substituted for silicon atoms, thus forming a R30° lattice. Even at the interface between a solid phase epitaxial Si(111) layer and a Si(111) substrate, the boron-induced R30° reconstruction has been also observed. Secondly, SiO2/Si(100)-2×l interfacial superstructures have been investigated. Interfacial superstructures have been only observed in the samples of which SiO2 layers have been deposited with a molecular beam deposition method. Finally, the interfaces of MOCVD-grown AIN/GaAs(100) have been shown to have 1×4 and 1×6 superstructures.
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