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Two new myxosporean species in the gallbladders of frogs have recently spread across eastern Australia and cause disease. Cystodiscus axonis sp. n. and Cystodiscus australis sp. n. are species of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) identified from a range of Australian frogs and tadpoles including the introduced Cane toad (Rhinella marina). The new species are defined by their distinct genetic lineage, myxospore morphology and ultrastructure of the pre-sporogonic development. Spores of both species are produced in the gallbladder. Spores of C. axonis sp. n. possess distinct filiform polar appendages (FPA). The pre-sporogonic development of C. axonis sp. n. is within myelinated axons in the central nervous system of hosts, as well as bile ducts of tadpoles. Pre-sporogonic and sporogonic development of C. australis sp. n. is confined to tadpole bile ducts and myxospores of C. australis sp. n. are devoid of FPA. The genus Cystodiscus Lutz, 1889 introduced for Cystodiscus immersus Lutz, 1889 is emended to accompany myxosporean parasites affecting amphibians previously classified in the genus Myxidium sensu lato. A synopsis of described species within Cystodiscus is provided.
An amendment of the family Sinuolineidae (Myxosporea) is proposed in order to include a newly described genus Latyspora n. gen. The type species Latyspora scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is a coelozoic parasite in the kidney tubules of Scomberomorus guttatus. In addition to the morphological and molecular characterization of L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp., we also present novel SSU rDNA data on Sphaerospora testicularis, a serious parasite of Dicentrarchus labrax. Performed phylogenetic analyses revealed that both species cluster within the marine urinary clade encompassing the representatives with a shared insertion within their V4 SSU rRNA region and grouping according to the shape of their spores’ sutural line and their similar tissue tropism in the host. Sphaerospora testicularis is the closest relative to Parvicapsula minibicornis within the Parvicapsula subclade and L. scomberomori n. gen. n. sp. is the basal species of the Zschokkella subclade. The phylogenetic position of S. testicularis, outwith the basal Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade, and its morphology suggest it being a non-typical Sphaerospora. The sequence data provided on S. testicularis can help in future revisions of the strongly polyphyletic genus Sphaerospora. We recommend re-sequencing of several sphaerosporids as an essential step before such taxonomic changes are accomplished.
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