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To investigate whether low vitamin D status was related to insulin resistance (IR) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Korean adolescents, after adjusting for total body fat mass (FM).
A cross-sectional study.
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNAHNES) 2009–2010.
In total, 1466 participants (769 males) aged 10–19 years were assessed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, for FM by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for IR by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) after an 8 h fast.
Age-, sex-, season- and physical-activity-adjusted regression models showed that serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly related to markers of adiposity (P = 0·016 for FM (g), P = 0·023 for FM (%) and P = 0·035 for fat mass index). When the participants were stratified into three 25(OH)D categories (<37·5 nmol/l (n 553), 37·5 to < 50 nmol/l (n 543) and ≥ 50 nmol/l (n 370)), significantly decreasing trends were observed for fasting insulin (all P < 0·001), HOMA-IR (all P < 0·001) and the odds ratios for IFG (all P for trend < 0·05) from the lowest to the highest 25(OH)D category, after adjustments for age, sex, physical activity and all markers of adiposity. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of participants in the lowest serum 25(OH)D category having IFG was 2·96–3·15 compared with those in the highest 25(OH)D category (all P < 0·05).
There was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D status and IR and the risk of IFG, independent of adiposity, in Korean adolescents.
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and predictors for low vitamin D status in Korean adolescents living between latitudes 33° and 39°N.
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009.
A total of 1510 healthy adolescents aged 12–18 years (806 male, mean age 14·7 years) participated. Possible predictors for low vitamin D status (log-transformed 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations) were evaluated.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml) was 89·1 % in spring, 53·7 % in summer, 63·9 % in autumn and 90·5 % in winter. Winter season, older age, higher education level reached, being female, being obese, a lack of vitamin D supplementation, lower milk consumption (0–<200 ml/d) and a lack of physical activity were unadjusted predictors (all P < 0·05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that winter season (P < 0·001), higher education level (P < 0·001) and a lack of vitamin D supplementation (P = 0·012) were independent predictors for low vitamin D status. The modifying effect of season on the association between vitamin D supplement use and vitamin D status was significant (P < 0·001).
Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in Korean adolescents, especially those in higher school grades. Vitamin D supplementation may contribute to maintain a better vitamin D status with lower seasonal variation. Further studies are required to determine optimal vitamin D intakes to maintain sufficient vitamin D status for Korean adolescents.
The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains causing bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been studied in Korea.
We sought to determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains among isolates recovered from patients with MRSA BSIs and to explore epidemiological changes in Korea. We also sought to evaluate clinical characteristics relevant to the development of healthcare-associated BSIs.
We prospectively collected consecutive MRSA isolates from patients with BSI at 4 hospitals from July 1 through November 30, 2007, and we also included MRSA isolates recovered from culture of blood samples collected during a previous year (October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005) at a different hospital. Molecular typing studies were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to CA-MRSA strains with those of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains.
There were 76 cases of MRSA BSI, of which 4 (5.3%) were community-associated and 72 (94.7%) were healthcare-associated. Among the 72 HA-MRSA BSIs, 18 (25%) were community onset, and 54 (75%) were hospital onset. PFGE type D-ST72–spa B-SCCmec type IVA MRSA, the predominant genotype of CA-MRSA in Korea, accounted for 19 (25%) of all 76 MRSA BSIs, including 17 (23.6%) of 72 HA-MRSA BSIs and 11 (20.8%) of 53 hospital-onset HA-MRSA BSIs. Patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to CA-MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type IVA tended to have fewer healthcare-associated risk factors, compared with patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to HA-MRSA strains carrying other SCCmec types. The presence of a central venous catheter or other invasive device was the only independent factor differentiating patients infected with hospital-associated genotype strains from patients infected with other strains. Clinical outcomes were similar between both groups.
CA-MRSA strains are emerging as a major cause of BSI in healthcare settings in Korea. This changing epidemiology of MRSA poses a challenge to public health and infection control in hospital settings.
Polysilsesquioxanes (PSSQs) with the empirical formula (RSiO3/2)n have become very important as low-dielectric insulators for copper interconnects in the next-generation logic devices, but the detailed structure-property relationships were completely lacking. We have investigated the microstructure and functional properties of PSSQs with varying alkyl substituents and also PSSQ copolymers. As a result, significant advances have been made in the scientific understanding of PSSQ structures and significant improvements of key properties such as the crack resistance, mechanical modulus and hardness, and incorporation of nanometer-sized (<4 nm) porosity for ultra-low dielectric constants (<2.0).
Although a number of functional imaging studies are in agreement in suggesting orbitofrontal and subcortical hyperfunction in the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural findings have been contradictory.
To investigate grey matter abnormalities in patients with OCD by employing a novel voxel-based analysis of magnetic resonance images.
Statistical parametric mapping was utilised to compare segmented grey matter images from 25 patients with OCD with those from 25 matched controls.
Increased regional grey matter density was found in multiple cortical areas, including the left orbitofrontal cortex, and in subcortical areas, including the thalamus. On the other hand, regions of reduction were confined to posterior parts of the brain, such as the left cuneus and the left cerebellum.
Increased grey matter density of frontal–subcortical circuits, consonant with the hypermetabolic findings from functional imaging studies, seems to exist in patients with OCD, and cerebellar dysfunction may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD.
We have grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a large area of Co-Ni codeposited Si substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition using C2H2 gas. The carbon nanotubes grown by the thermal chemical vapor deposition are multi-wall structure, and the wall surface of nanotubes is covered with defective graphite sheets or carbonaceous particles. The carbon nanotubes range from 50 to 120 nm in diameter and about 130 μm in length at 950 °C. Steric hindrance between nanotubes at an initial stage of the growth forces nanotubes to align vertically. The turn-on voltage was about 0.8 V/μm with a current density of 0.1 μA/cm2 and emission current reveals the Fowler-Nordheim mode.
Amorphous silicon films were prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering under conditions approaching the phase transition to microcrystallinity. Using TEM imaging these films were found to contain clusters of 5 to 50 nm sized Si crystallites embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. Photocapacitance and transient photocurrent sub-band-gap optical spectra of this material appear to consist of a superposition of a spectrum typical of amorphous silicon together with an optical transition, with a threshold near 1. 1eV, that exhibits a very large optical cross section. This transition arises from valence band electrons being optically inserted into empty levels lying within the amorphous silicon mobility gap. Using modulated photocurrent methods we have determined that these states also dominate the electron deep trapping in this material. We argue that these states arise from defects at the crystalline-amorphous boundary.
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