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The present study aimed to determine thiamine intake levels and the association between thiamine intake, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. Participants were interviewed to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, current medications, medical and family history. The daily intake of thiamine was assessed by a 24-h recall. The mean age of the 34 700 study subjects was 42⋅9 years (sd 22⋅8, min–max: 1–80) and 19 342 (55⋅7 %) were women. The levels of thiamine intake were 1⋅126 mg (2016), 1⋅115 mg (2017) and 1⋅087 mg (2018) for women, which were equal to or only slightly above the recommended intake of 1⋅10 mg/d for women. The levels of thiamine intake from 2014–15 and 2016–18 significantly decreased. The estimated percentage of insufficient thiamine intake was 37⋅8 % (95 % CI 37⋅3, 38⋅4). Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that thiamine intake was critically associated with lower risks of hypertension, MI or angina, type 2 diabetes, depression and dyslipidemia. The daily thiamine intake from food can reversal the risks of hypertension (OR 0⋅95; 95 % CI 0⋅90, 0⋅99), MI or angina (OR 0⋅84; 95 % CI 0⋅74, 0⋅95), type 2 diabetes (OR 0⋅86; 95 % CI 0⋅81, 0⋅93), depression (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅83, 0⋅97) and dyslipidemia (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅86, 0⋅95), respectively. Further works are needed to identify the effects of thiamine and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health. A preventive thiamine supplementation strategy should be adopted to target NCDs and mental health and risk factors associated with thiamine deficiency. The optimisation of NCD control and mental health protection is also a vital integral part of Korea's public health system.
There is considerable uncertainty regarding changes in future mortality rates. This article investigates the impact of such longevity risk on discounted government annuity benefits for retirees. It is critical to forecast more accurate future mortality rates to improve our estimation of an expected annuity payout. Thus, we utilize the Lee–Carter model, which is well-known as a parsimonious dynamic mortality model. We find strong evidence that female retirees are likely to receive more public lifetime annuity than males in the USA, which is associated with systematic mortality rate differences between genders. A cross-country comparison presents that the current public annuity system would not fully cover retiree's longevity risk. Every additional year of life expectancy leaves future retirees exposed to high risk, arising from high volatility of lifetime annuities. Also, because the growth in life expectancy is higher than the growth of expected public pension, there will be a financial risk to retirees.
We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.
Responsive, biocompatible substrates are of interest for directing the maturation and function of cells in vitro during cell culture. This can potentially provide cells and tissues with desirable properties for regenerative therapies. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward and scalable approach to attach, align, and dynamically load cardiomyocytes on responsive liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) substrates. Monodomain LCEs exhibit reversible shape changes in response to cyclic heating, and when immersed in an aqueous medium on top of resistive heaters, shape changes are fast, reversible, and produce minimal temperature changes in the surroundings. We systematically characterized the strain response of LCEs in water and demonstrated the attachment and alignment of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes on LCE substrates. Cardiomyocytes attached to both static and stimulated LCE substrates, and under cyclic stimulation, cardiomyocytes aligned along the primary direction of strain. This work demonstrates the potential of LCEs as stimuli-responsive substrates for dynamic cell culture.
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